PHP is the language we use on the server. We use PHP >= 7, as it's the fastest and most reliable version, with a few nice additions that older versions didn't have.
Laravel is the PHP framework we use. It speeds up development and simplifies a lot of PHP. Complicated at first but saves time once you're comfortable with it.
The server we use. Don't really need to worry about this too much.
Sass is a CSS preprocessor that adds nice functionality such as nested styles, imports, mixins, variables etc.
MySQL is the database system we use.
I use Postman for testing API endpoints etc.
I use React as a frontend view framework. It's not always needed, but when the UI for a site has lots of changing parts and/or interactive functionality, React makes it a lot easier to work with.