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Go vs Rust: What are the differences?

Introduction

In this comparison, we will explore the key differences between Go and Rust, two popular programming languages known for their performance, simplicity, and safety.

  1. Memory Management: Go uses a garbage collector (GC) for automatic memory management, which means the programmer doesn't have to explicitly deallocate memory. On the other hand, Rust uses a concept called ownership, which allows the compiler to manage memory without a garbage collector. This ownership system ensures memory safety while eliminating the need for garbage collection.

  2. Concurrency: Go has built-in support for concurrent programming with goroutines and channels. Goroutines are lightweight threads that allow easy concurrent execution, and channels facilitate communication between goroutines. In contrast, Rust provides concurrency through its ownership and borrowing system, which ensures memory safety and prevents data races at compile time. Rust also offers abstractions like async/await, allowing asynchronous programming.

  3. Error Handling: Go follows a simple approach to error handling using the error interface and the nil value convention. While this approach is straightforward, it lacks the expressiveness and reliability of Rust's Result and Option types, which provide more explicit and structured error handling mechanisms. Rust's approach forces developers to handle errors explicitly, leading to safer and more reliable code.

  4. Type System: Both Go and Rust have statically-typed systems, but they adopt different philosophies. Go has a comparatively simpler type system with limited support for generics and no support for algebraic data types (ADTs). In contrast, Rust has a more advanced type system that includes generics, ADTs (enums), pattern matching, traits, and algebraic effects. Rust's type system provides stronger static guarantees and helps prevent runtime errors.

  5. Tooling and Ecosystem: Go has a straightforward and easy-to-use toolchain, with a built-in package manager (go modules) and a powerful standard library. Go also has a large ecosystem of third-party libraries and tools. Rust, on the other hand, has a sophisticated and extensible toolchain with the Cargo package manager, which not only manages dependencies but also provides build automation and documentation generation. Rust's ecosystem has been rapidly growing, with many high-quality libraries and frameworks.

  6. Community and Adoption: Both Go and Rust have quickly gained popularity among developers. However, Go has a larger community and wider adoption due to its simplicity, clean syntax, and excellent support for concurrent programming. It is widely used for building scalable web services and network servers. Rust, although relatively newer, has been rapidly growing in popularity due to its focus on performance, safety, and reliable systems programming. Rust is adopted in projects where safety and low-level control are paramount, such as browsers and system components.

Summary

In summary, Go and Rust differ in their memory management approaches, concurrency models, error handling mechanisms, type systems, tooling and ecosystems, as well as community and adoption. Both languages excel in different domains, with Go being favored for scalable web services, and Rust being preferred for system-level programming and performance-critical applications.

Advice on Golang and Rust
Caue Carvalho
Needs advice
on
GolangGolangPythonPython
and
RubyRuby

Hello!

I'm a developer for over 9 years, and most of this time I've been working with C# and it is paying my bills until nowadays. But I'm seeking to learn other languages and expand the possibilities for the next years.

Now the question... I know Ruby is far from dead but is it still worth investing time in learning it? Or would be better to take Python, Golang, or even Rust? Or maybe another language.

Thanks in advance.

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Replies (8)
Angel Ramirez
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at

Hi Caue, I don't think any language is dead in 2022, and we still see a lot of Cobol and Fortran out there, so Ruby is not going to die for sure. However, based on the market, you'll be better off learning Goland and Python. For example, for data science, machine learning, and similar areas, Python is the default language while backend API, services, and other general purpose Goland is becoming the preferred.

I hope this helps.

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Recommends
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GolangGolangPythonPython

I feel most productive using go. It has all the features I need and doesn't throw road blocks in your way as you learn. Rust is the most difficult to learn as borrow checking and other features can puzzle a newcomer for days. Python is a logical next step as it has a huge following, many great libraries, and one can find a gig using python in a heartbeat. Ruby isn't awful, it's just not that popular as the others.

Another reason to use python is that it is not compiled. You can muck around in the interpreter until you figure things out. OTOH, that makes it less performant. You really need to think about your use cases, your interest in lower-lever versus high-level coding, and so on.

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Roman Glushko
Machine Learning, Software Engineering and Life · | 4 upvotes · 65.2K views
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GolangGolangPythonPythonRustRust

I enjoy coding in Python. I think it's minimalistic and readable syntax and lang features are just unparalleled. They are perfect for prototyping and for the software engineering in general. If I'm not wrong Gitlab marked Python as #2 popular language after JavaScript. Beyond that, Python ecosystem and areas of usage are enormous. In areas like ML/DL, it's important to know Python to leverage variety of existing tools and frameworks.

Then, I have learned and worked with Golang. I use it where I think I would need a slightly better performance than in Python. Plus, relatively small and self-contained executable is a great thing to have. If you plan to write distributed systems, extend Kubernetes or do similar things I think Golang is a great choice. It's also simple and straightforward, especially when you want to do effective multithreading. Although I don't like that Golang is more low-level than Python. Sometimes I feel like I need to implement myself too much things.

Now, about Rust. It's my second try to learn Rust. First time I decided to learn Golang as I understood it in 30mins or so while I was struggling to compile/do anything meaningful there for quite a bit. So I personally don't think Rust is super easy. I have got back to learning Rust as it's going to fill one of gaps in my problem solving toolkit - let me write low-level system programs (e.g. linux kernel modules). I don't want to learn "obsolete" C/C++ (my reasons are similar to why Google has recently introduced Carbon - a replacement for C/C++ codebases). If you are not going to tight your life with system-like programming, Rust may be an overkill for you.

Finally, I have never coded in Ruby, so are not going to comment it.

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Recommends
on
PythonPython

Because it opens endless possibilities you can do anything and everything you want to. from ai to app development to web development.

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at

Since you are very experienced, picking up a language will not take you more than a week. Rust is a very new language. Many startups are still experimenting with it. Golang is very popular nowadays. You can see a lot of golang jobs in the market. The best part is, compiled code is single binary and has a minimal footprint. Rails is a compelling framework; believe me, many websites like Shopify, GitHub, GitLab, etc., are powered by the rails framework. You can also leverage the power of metaprogramming in Ruby. Python is memory and CPU intensive. It is not as performant as the other three. If you want to go into Data Science, Python is the language. Good luck, buddy. Feel free to connect with me: https://twitter.com/avirajkhare00

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it is highly recommended to take a look at that survey

https://survey.stackoverflow.co/2022/

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Recommends

I'm almost same position as you. 8 years same company with c#. I tried both Python and Golang. I like working with Golang. Check this litte go doc. After reading this document and following its examples, I decided to work with "go" https://www.openmymind.net/assets/go/go.pdf

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A Nielsen
Fullstack Dev at ADTELA · | 1 upvotes · 61.8K views
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on
GolangGolangPythonPython

Either Python or Golang, for all the enlightened reasons already mentionned in all advices/comments :) Enjoy!

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Needs advice
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GolangGolangPerlPerl
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RustRust

I intend to use a programming language which I'll use as AWS runtime and write a script that will comb through tons of files in a directory and its subdirectories and search for simple text regular expressions and process and write the matches in a file as output. I have heard that Perl is good for regex based search but I also want the performance to be good as it will have to go through tons of files for IO. In this post: https://filia-aleks.medium.com/aws-lambda-battle-2021-performance-comparison-for-all-languages-c1b441005fd1, I see that Rust works well as AWS Lambda runtime with very good performance. Which one should I choose as my AWS lambda runtime for this problem? Golang is also an option as it is fast as per the above link.

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Replies (1)
Recommends

I used to work in a Perl shop and must admit that the language is very simple for tasks like these, but as you mentioned it's not fast at execution time. I'm now a Go programmer professionally but I taught myself the language while in college purely out of interest and eventually found my way to the job, not the other way around. I've recently been learning a little rust because of how much that language comes up in conversations around Go. I find the concept of the borrow checker nice but I have to admit I feel lost like I am in most flavors of new fancy framework js. That's not to say Rust is really anything like js, but the learning appears the same to me as someone who's convinced they could learn just about any programming language if it was necessary (over time I've seen procedural, OOP, declarative and functional stuff but never programming logic outside of the prolog code I wrote in school).

Go isn't made for your specific task at hand but it's a very easy language to pick up and it has good directory traversal standard library code and good regex (even though with time perl's has been optimized to be faster and I think it's written in C++) but more than anything Go is "cloud native" programming in that an awful lot of new microservice tech stacks are centered around it, docker and kubernetes are written in it, and there's a thriving community whose focus is generally web-first and performance-oriented. This means for your use case there might already be a large cohort of gophers that have asked the stackoverflow questions for you

I personally would push you towards the NYT Profiler for Perl before I would towards Rest, but that's because I know you wouldn't waste any time being able to get to the task at hand and then make it go faster, and I expect all but a few rustaceans would be able to do so with the same speed.

Whatever you pick I wish you the very best of luck!

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Sachin K
Cloud Engineer and Developer · | 6 upvotes · 97.4K views
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GolangGolangJavaJava
and
PythonPython

Hello Folks, my first time here, and for requesting advice. I am trying to create some automation from my cloud stack on AWS to something more cloud native. I have containerised the services, however, I am stuck at DB, my Data warehouse, and messaging. Would love some recommendations on how can I automate this for some future work too.

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Simon Banks
Principal Software Engineer at AtCore Tech · | 3 upvotes · 93.8K views
Recommends

I recommend cloud-init for base setup of machines and configuring them.. Its simple (YAML file) and is industry standard. Even works on bare metal as well as cloud.

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Needs advice
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ElixirElixir
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RustRust

I've been working with Js/Ts as a backend developer and I would like to get some suggestions about what new language to learn right now. I've been thinking about Elixir or Rust, focusing on creating WebApis and Blockchain technology. I am passionate about the funcional way but I'm now confident about Elixir in Blockchain. Rust seems like have more jobs about it than Elixir in a little research. Someone could give me some advice? Thank you.

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Replies (2)
Cristian Carreno
Lead Backend Software Engineer at Suda Outdoors · | 8 upvotes · 54.5K views
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on
ElixirElixirGolangGolang

For web development I would suggest to take a look into Elixir. Elixir is extemely good for real time apps through websockets, apps with a need of high concurrency and / or apps where you need to process hundreds of thousands of states of differents users in parallel thanks to the actor model that comes with Erlang virtual machine. To solve these kind of problems in another stack could be really hard and painful (including your current stack).

It's true that Elixir is a niche stack ( It deserves way more popularity in my opinion), so, if your concern is to learn something that would keep you inside the trend and market, instead of Rust or Elixir I would suggest Go. Go it's another outstanding language, will a lot of virtues, small and easy to learn, with it for example, you could compile the same application to different operating systems just with a special compiler command (And the compiler is blazing fast). You can also start with a lot of good libraries that helps you to keep your code clean and under control and of course, it's performance is very good too.

Hope my suggestions could be helpful.

Best regards, and happy coding!

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Tyrone Wilson
Lead Developer at Black Swan Data · | 7 upvotes · 53.7K views
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on
GolangGolang

Golang is to my mind by far the greatest bang for your buck in terms of investing your time it has a low barrier to entry. Elixir is fun and all, but it is VERY VERY niche. You are very unlikely to find a job directly requiring Elixir. Rust is a good option depending on what you want to achieve but golang is a great general-purpose language that has a very approachable learning curve, great documentation and a lot of jobs available. There are some very high profile projects written in golang. Docker, Kubernetes, InfluxDB and Grafana just to name a few. I was at this same junction at the end of 2018 having spent a lot of time in JS/TS & Ruby. I had already learned Elixir and done a couple of projects in it and I switched to Golang as I didn't want to learn niche languages. I have never regretted my choice. Obviously, every tool has its place but golang is a winner if you want to learn something new :)

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Needs advice
on
C langC lang
and
RustRust

When working on Python, I noticed that Python is only useful for data science. I am looking for a programming language that:

  • Is different in terms of paradigm(I used OO only in Python for data analysis, I want something that is a different paradigm to improve my coding skills)

  • Is excellent at systems engineering

  • Will enhance my Python projects and basically make Python better

  • Has an excellent future, will skyrocket in terms of demand

  • Is very performant, excellent performance

  • Has a steep learning curve(it's because I want a simple language and an advanced language in my stack)

I found these two languages to fit my needs, and I need help choosing. Which would be better for me considering my needs

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Replies (2)
Jayson Pamittan
Software Engineer - Level III at Arch Global Services · | 2 upvotes · 58.3K views
Recommends
on
RustRust

Rust is more useful compared to C on some cases like in web assembly. C is more tedious to code. Rust is modern and has a lot more of opportunities. If you are also investing for the future I recommend Rust over C.

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Recommends
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RustRust

It must be Rust, It absorbs the advantages of other languages,safe, good performance and develop quickly, The community is also growing and active. I think there are some difficulties to learn Rust, but when you have mastered it, you will write good programs than C lang

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Mahmoud Gabr
Software engineer at AlgoDriven · | 8 upvotes · 115.3K views
Needs advice
on
GolangGolangNode.jsNode.js
and
PHPPHP

I'm working in a company as a software engineer, Mainly we are focusing on PHP as the product is being developed in PHP (native) also there are a few products in Node.js, I tried to introduce Laravel but there is no luck to work on it. Now I have started learning Go language, should I focus more on Go or continue only with PHP and NodeJS. BTW I know PHP and NodeJS very well.

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Recommends

Be flexible, be agile in your personal and professional life. Don't be afraid to learn new things and step outside of your confort zone BUT with reason. Reason can be a career path or just money. Does Go belongs to your career path? Does Go belongs to your company's toolset? Do yo seek for new job oportunities? Some people follow a complete career path by using a single language i.e, PHP or java, but if you want to standout in the crowd this is not enough. You already know PHP. This is an oportunity to learn something new. In general, I would advise you to learn at least one language & library/framework per stack . This will help you to lead a team someday.

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Adit Patel
Needs advice
on
RustRust
and
SwiftSwift

Hey there, we are looking to develop our own layer 1 blockchain. We're splitting the responsibilities for origination, clearing, and settlement across three independent but cooperating node networks. We've gotten our Proof of Concept up using Ruby on Rails for the nodes, you can see it as the attached link. So far, so good. Now we are looking to convert it into a distributable and are trying to figure out which language is the best for this.

Essentially our needs from the language are: solid networking tools and speed, very fast execution of basic actions, some parallel execution, and able to compile the end product into an easy to distribute and use package for end users.

I was learning Rust, but I have a healthy amount of experience with Swift and right now, it's only me coding. I've only done iOS coding, but have built a fintech app from scratch that's now in the app store so I'm pretty familiar with the language and its benefits. Haven't experimented with Vapor or any of the application development tools, and I wanted to know if it is a crazy idea to develop a blockchain node in Swift instead.

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Replies (2)
Recommends
on
RustRust

Pick Rust. Rust can provide all what you need and has been a major language in blockchain/cryptocurrency industry. Swift is slower than Rust and does not have such support in the networking and domain field. Swift tooling is great only on macOS, therefore you are likely to have troubles on other platforms.

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Peter Suwara
Director at Realityworks · | 6 upvotes · 115K views
Recommends
on
C++C++GolangGolangSwiftSwift

You can use swift of course. It’s more of a question of being performant.

You really want to try some basic operations and find what’s most performant for you.

Rust is wonderful for cloud applications requiring heavy concurrency, it has compile time checking for such things.

Go and C++ could be more performant in your case. Swift is really quite an obtuse language, with a lot of features, some which may complicate your implementation.

Also, you want to consider the market of developers who could help build it. If you use Go or C++ there is a larger collection of people who know the languages than there is with swift.

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Needs advice
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ElixirElixirGolangGolang
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PythonPython

Hi! I'm currently studying Flutter for mobile apps, but I also have a demand to automate some tasks on the web and create backends' for my apps, so thinking about which one of those could be better? Considering the performance and how easy it's to learn and create stuff? (I'm already familiar with .NET stack but want something more "simple" to write)

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Replies (4)
Amit Mor
Software Architect at Payoneer · | 5 upvotes · 205.1K views
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on
PythonPython

Definitely Python. Lots of libraries, dead simple syntax. Lots of code examples and reference projects. Elixir is pure functional and takes time to grasp the concepts. Go is great, with simple syntax and performant runtime, but more strict as it is statically typed. For quick coding, nothing beats Python. As you come from .net I’d consider similar approach and be considering Java with SpringBoot as it makes Java faster and much more fun to code web servers

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Recommends
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ElixirElixir

Elixir really has a good performance for the web (and in general). Its framework Phoenix for the web is a great tool, easy to install and to use, with features for websockets (and Pub/Sub) or LiveView to write reactive and real time app with only HTML (and Elixir) so basically everything is in one place

It can take some time to learn a few things in Elixir but I really think it's worth it, and it's very easy to go distributed and concurrent with Elixir. Also it's easier to code quickly with some features like the pattern matching or some operators like the pipe or the capture one

And in the case you need it you can still connect and interface Python and Elixir pretty quickly, and now Elixir has a lot of different frameworks : web, embedded or even neural networks now

Never went far with Go but I have some trouble with its syntax, I find it a bit messy

I don't have a lot of experience with the web with Python but I don't have a good experience with the little I did

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Recommends
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GolangGolangPythonPython

Judging your previous experience we will benefit from Golang in terms of portability and speed. If you want to go simplier use Python. If it's only scripts use Python.

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Shivam kr Shiv

Hey Vitor, You can use Node and Express JS to create a backend for your app. You can create REST APIS to connect your front end with the backend. It is a very simple and scalable solution for building backend web apps.

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Brayden W
Needs advice
on
GolangGolangPythonPython
and
RustRust

Hey, 👋

My name is Brayden. I’m currently a Frontend React Developer, striving to move into Fullstack so I can expand my knowledge.

For my main backend language, I am deciding between Python, Rust, and Go. I’ve tried each of them out for about an hour and currently, I like Python and Rust the most. However, I’m not sure if I’m missing out on something!

If anyone has advice on these technologies, I’d love to hear it!

Thanks.

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Replies (4)
Recommends
on
GolangGolangPythonPython

Rust is still in low demand. It's a great language but you'll have a hard time finding jobs. Go is the mix of both Rust and Python. Great language with modern features, fast, scalable, fun to write, and at the same time it has high demand (not as much as python).

Python on the other hand is a language that you can't go wrong with. Look around you and see what your job market prefers. If there isn't much difference to you personally, pick the one with more demand.

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All of these are solid options, however considering your expertise currently, I would probably suggest Node.JS considering your past experience with JS. However Python offers a similar development environment to JS in my opinion, and Go is a good sort of intermediate between Rust and Node.JS and Python. It's fast, but not as fast as Rust, and offers a development experience that combines C-styled languages (like Rust), and Python-y languages... So: Rust for the fastest, Node for familiarity, Python for ease of development, and Go for a good middle ground. I have used all in personal projects... If you use Go, I suggest a easy to use web server framework like Fiber.

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Akihito KIRISAKI
Recommends
on
PythonPythonRustRust

Rust is a challenging choice, but worth to be chosen. It has strong memory-safety and type-safety, this gives you no bother about those errors. However, static typing languages often slow our developing speed down in early stage. In that case, it's effective to write prototype in an easy language like Python, and rewrite it in a hard language. It's important not to be afraid to throw away first code you write.

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Donald Tran
Software Engineer at T-Mobile · | 3 upvotes · 392.8K views
Recommends
on
RustRust

The other answers are excellent, but I want to be a bit of a contrarian and say you should learn Rust. While the number of jobs for it are (relatively) low(er), it is certainly expanding and you'd be surprised at which companies do use Rust (Discord, for example, is starting to move away from Golang to Rust!).

But the main reason is that learning Rust itself will teach you a lot about systems design (/backend) because of its borrow checker. You can try out a lot of ideas and make a lot mistakes and the borrow checker will always be there guide you to a better solution (thereby teaching you in the process).

Also, I wouldn't underestimated how important managing memory (and memory safety) is. While Golang is great in some ways, it doesn't protect you from pushing memory leaks into production. And eventually you'll come upon a scenario where you'll have to make your Python code run faster and the optimizations you'd have to do won't look pretty (or be very Pythontic).

And Rust is freakin fast! If you have Rust, you wouldn't need any other language for the backend (or any other systems level code). Check this blog post: https://blog.discord.com/why-discord-is-switching-from-go-to-rust-a190bbca2b1f?gi=dd8bc5d669d. Discord found that even after spending months optimizing Golang code it still wasn't fast enough. But unoptimized, first-draft Rust code was (is) faster by an order of magnitude!

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piusha kalyana
Senior software engineer at Getir · | 13 upvotes · 361.6K views
Needs advice
on
GolangGolangPHPPHP
and
PythonPython

Hi

I want to build a tool to check asset availability (video, images, etc.) from third-party vendors. These vendors have APIs. However, this process should run daily basis and update the database with the status. This is a kind of separate process. I need to know what will be the good approach and technology for this?

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Replies (5)
Hannes Holst
at 365 Consulting Services Ltd. · | 7 upvotes · 360.4K views
Recommends
on
PythonPython

hi - I think this depends on how you want to provide the information to the user. If you want to build a Wordpress-plugin: PHP If you want to build your own website: Python+Django / PHP / JavaScript+Node.js As Desktop application?

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Recommends
on
GolangGolang

The major advantage of Go is that you can run queries in parallel. Fire off a Go thread for each vendor and each thread can check the availability of assets from a specific vendor and update the database. Go supports hundreds of threads with ease.

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anas mattar
Technical Lead at DPO International · | 3 upvotes · 347.4K views
Recommends
on
PHPPHP

for what technologies you should use, this is depend on what technology do you prefer? your should think best structuing for your code because each API vendor has different to a nother one so it's better no merege code vendores together. your code must be using SOLID principle pattern and some design pattern such as Factory Pattern

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anas mattar
Technical Lead at DPO International · | 1 upvotes · 343.4K views
Recommends
on
C#C#GolangGolangPHPPHP

your decision depend on what language do you know. if you know php you can use laravel framework

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Oluwafemi Lawrence
Recommends
on
GolangGolang

Hi, I would recommend Go because of strongly-typed nature which makes a developer more productive as it is less error prone compared to the other dynamic-typed language. Go also has cron-job library(powered by goroutines) that can help with your automated tasks.

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Decisions about Golang and Rust
Piotr Czarnas

We have chosen a mix of Java and Python for building an open source data observability tool. The application can work as a standalone command line tool with a rich shell interface (using even command completion). The Java ecosystem is more mature when it comes to connectivity to various databases using JDBC. Also picocli with jline3 let us make a very dynamic shell interface with command completion. The definitions of data quality checks that should be executed are defined in YAML files, backed by a YAML (in fact JSON) schema files. Our YAML files can be edited in Visual Studio Code (and other code editors) with support of the code completion. It is possible because all the data model is defined as pure Java classes for which we are generating a YAML/JSON schema. There is still place for Python because it is very popular in the database space. We are simply starting a Python interpreter in the background (from a Java code). Python is used to evaluate validation rules (defined as Python functions) and render SQL queries from Jinja2 templates.

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Gonçalo Rodrigues
Chose
GolangGolang
over
PythonPython

As we're developing a critical piece of software, type safety is very important to minimize the errors we have. While Python supports type hints nowadays, Go makes it much more easy to work with and allows us to be confident in the software we ship.

Take look at our code in our github

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Migrated
from
PythonPython
to
GolangGolang

Ever since the introduction of the PWA, I felt forced to learn JS, React, and Angular. I encountered WASM, which compiles Go/Rust to JS. I decided to give go a shot and made a simple weather PWA that tells the weather of various Japanese cities. It was 40x faster than Transcrypt and 0.9x faster than regular JS. Go is even simpler than Python when coming to tools like list comprehension and Pandas.

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We chose Rust for our web API because the Warp crate makes it easy to compose high-performance and asynchronous APIs. Rust allows us to achieve high development velocity because it provides zero-cost abstractions and enforces strict type and memory-safety checks with high quality and actionable error messages.

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#rust #elixir So am creating a messenger with voice call capabilities app which the user signs up using phone number and so at first i wanted to use Actix so i learned Rust so i thought to myself because well its first i felt its a bit immature to use actix web even though some companies are using Rust but we cant really say the full potential of Rust in a full scale app for example in Discord both Elixir and Rust are used meaning there is equal need for them but for Elixir so many companies use it from Whatsapp, Wechat, etc and this means something for Rust is not ready to go full scale we cant assume all this possibilities when it come Rust. So i decided to go the Erlang way after alot of Thinking so Do you think i made the right decision?Am 19 year programmer so i assume am not experienced as you so your answer or comment would really valuable to me

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Kirill Mikhailov

Go is a way faster than both Python and PHP, which is pretty understandable, but we were amazed at how good we adapted to use it. Go was a blessing for a team , since strict typing is making it very easy to develop and control everything inside team, so the quality was really good. We made huge leap forward in dev speed because of it.

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Context: Writing an open source CLI tool.

Go and Rust over Python: Simple distribution.

With Go and Rust, just build statically compiled binaries and hand them out.

With Python, have people install with "pip install --user" and not finding the binaries :(.

Go and Rust over Python: Startup and runtime performance

Go and Rust over Python: No need to worry about which Python interpreter version is installed on the users' machines.

Go over Rust: Simplicity; Rust's memory management comes at a development / maintenance cost.

Go over Rust: Easier cross compiles from macOS to Linux.

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We’re a new startup so we need to be able to deliver quick changes as we find our product market fit. We’ve also got to ensure that we’re moving money safely, and keeping perfect records. The technologies we’ve chosen mix mature but well maintained frameworks like Django, with modern web-first and api-first front ends like GraphQL, NextJS, and Chakra. We use a little Golang sparingly in our backend to ensure that when we interact with financial services, we do so with statically compiled, strongly typed, and strictly limited and reviewed code.

You can read all about it in our linked blog post.

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Timm Stelzer
VP Of Engineering at Flexperto GmbH · | 18 upvotes · 623.9K views

We have a lot of experience in JavaScript, writing our services in NodeJS allows developers to transition to the back end without any friction, without having to learn a new language. There is also the option to write services in TypeScript, which adds an expressive type layer. The semi-shared ecosystem between front and back end is nice as well, though specifically NodeJS libraries sometimes suffer in quality, compared to other major languages.

As for why we didn't pick the other languages, most of it comes down to "personal preference" and historically grown code bases, but let's do some post-hoc deduction:

Go is a practical choice, reasonably easy to learn, but until we find performance issues with our NodeJS stack, there is simply no reason to switch. The benefits of using NodeJS so far outweigh those of picking Go. This might change in the future.

PHP is a language we're still using in big parts of our system, and are still sometimes writing new code in. Modern PHP has fixed some of its issues, and probably has the fastest development cycle time, but it suffers around modelling complex asynchronous tasks, and (on a personal note) lack of support for writing in a functional style.

We don't use Python, Elixir or Ruby, mostly because of personal preference and for historic reasons.

Rust, though I personally love and use it in my projects, would require us to specifically hire for that, as the learning curve is quite steep. Its web ecosystem is OK by now (see https://www.arewewebyet.org/), but in my opinion, it is still no where near that of the other web languages. In other words, we are not willing to pay the price for playing this innovation card.

Haskell, as with Rust, I personally adore, but is simply too esoteric for us. There are problem domains where it shines, ours is not one of them.

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With Python + Django it was so much faster to create a typical website like this. Using Go would take to long to launch the initial version. For example, Python could handle complex data type with less line of code. Django also has many built-in libraries and a huge ecosystem of libraries that can be easily used to build a feature.

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Pros of Golang
Pros of Rust
  • 548
    High-performance
  • 395
    Simple, minimal syntax
  • 363
    Fun to write
  • 301
    Easy concurrency support via goroutines
  • 273
    Fast compilation times
  • 193
    Goroutines
  • 180
    Statically linked binaries that are simple to deploy
  • 150
    Simple compile build/run procedures
  • 136
    Backed by google
  • 136
    Great community
  • 53
    Garbage collection built-in
  • 45
    Built-in Testing
  • 44
    Excellent tools - gofmt, godoc etc
  • 39
    Elegant and concise like Python, fast like C
  • 37
    Awesome to Develop
  • 26
    Used for Docker
  • 25
    Flexible interface system
  • 24
    Deploy as executable
  • 24
    Great concurrency pattern
  • 20
    Open-source Integration
  • 18
    Easy to read
  • 17
    Fun to write and so many feature out of the box
  • 16
    Go is God
  • 14
    Easy to deploy
  • 14
    Powerful and simple
  • 14
    Its Simple and Heavy duty
  • 13
    Best language for concurrency
  • 13
    Concurrency
  • 11
    Rich standard library
  • 11
    Safe GOTOs
  • 10
    Clean code, high performance
  • 10
    Easy setup
  • 9
    High performance
  • 9
    Simplicity, Concurrency, Performance
  • 8
    Hassle free deployment
  • 8
    Single binary avoids library dependency issues
  • 7
    Gofmt
  • 7
    Cross compiling
  • 7
    Simple, powerful, and great performance
  • 7
    Used by Giants of the industry
  • 6
    Garbage Collection
  • 5
    Very sophisticated syntax
  • 5
    Excellent tooling
  • 5
    WYSIWYG
  • 4
    Keep it simple and stupid
  • 4
    Widely used
  • 4
    Kubernetes written on Go
  • 2
    No generics
  • 1
    Operator goto
  • 1
    Looks not fancy, but promoting pragmatic idioms
  • 143
    Guaranteed memory safety
  • 130
    Fast
  • 87
    Open source
  • 75
    Minimal runtime
  • 70
    Pattern matching
  • 63
    Type inference
  • 56
    Concurrent
  • 56
    Algebraic data types
  • 46
    Efficient C bindings
  • 43
    Practical
  • 37
    Best advances in languages in 20 years
  • 32
    Safe, fast, easy + friendly community
  • 30
    Fix for C/C++
  • 25
    Stablity
  • 24
    Zero-cost abstractions
  • 23
    Closures
  • 20
    Extensive compiler checks
  • 20
    Great community
  • 18
    Async/await
  • 18
    No NULL type
  • 15
    Completely cross platform: Windows, Linux, Android
  • 15
    No Garbage Collection
  • 14
    Great documentations
  • 14
    High-performance
  • 12
    Generics
  • 12
    Super fast
  • 12
    High performance
  • 11
    Macros
  • 11
    Fearless concurrency
  • 11
    Guaranteed thread data race safety
  • 11
    Safety no runtime crashes
  • 10
    Helpful compiler
  • 10
    Compiler can generate Webassembly
  • 9
    Prevents data races
  • 9
    Easy Deployment
  • 9
    RLS provides great IDE support
  • 8
    Painless dependency management
  • 8
    Real multithreading
  • 7
    Good package management
  • 5
    Support on Other Languages

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Cons of Golang
Cons of Rust
  • 42
    You waste time in plumbing code catching errors
  • 25
    Verbose
  • 23
    Packages and their path dependencies are braindead
  • 16
    Google's documentations aren't beginer friendly
  • 15
    Dependency management when working on multiple projects
  • 10
    Automatic garbage collection overheads
  • 8
    Uncommon syntax
  • 7
    Type system is lacking (no generics, etc)
  • 5
    Collection framework is lacking (list, set, map)
  • 3
    Best programming language
  • 1
    A failed experiment to combine c and python
  • 26
    Hard to learn
  • 23
    Ownership learning curve
  • 11
    Unfriendly, verbose syntax
  • 4
    Variable shadowing
  • 4
    High size of builded executable
  • 4
    Many type operations make it difficult to follow
  • 3
    No jobs
  • 1
    Use it only for timeoass not in production

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What is Golang?

Go is expressive, concise, clean, and efficient. Its concurrency mechanisms make it easy to write programs that get the most out of multicore and networked machines, while its novel type system enables flexible and modular program construction. Go compiles quickly to machine code yet has the convenience of garbage collection and the power of run-time reflection. It's a fast, statically typed, compiled language that feels like a dynamically typed, interpreted language.

What is Rust?

Rust is a systems programming language that combines strong compile-time correctness guarantees with fast performance. It improves upon the ideas of other systems languages like C++ by providing guaranteed memory safety (no crashes, no data races) and complete control over the lifecycle of memory.

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What are some alternatives to Golang and Rust?
Python
Python is a general purpose programming language created by Guido Van Rossum. Python is most praised for its elegant syntax and readable code, if you are just beginning your programming career python suits you best.
Java
Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!
Node.js
Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that makes it lightweight and efficient, perfect for data-intensive real-time applications that run across distributed devices.
JavaScript
JavaScript is most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic,and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles.
Git
Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency.
See all alternatives