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MySQL vs PostgreSQL: What are the differences?
What is MySQL? The world's most popular open source database. The MySQL software delivers a very fast, multi-threaded, multi-user, and robust SQL (Structured Query Language) database server. MySQL Server is intended for mission-critical, heavy-load production systems as well as for embedding into mass-deployed software.
What is PostgreSQL? A powerful, open source object-relational database system. PostgreSQL is an advanced object-relational database management system that supports an extended subset of the SQL standard, including transactions, foreign keys, subqueries, triggers, user-defined types and functions.
MySQL and PostgreSQL can be primarily classified as "Databases" tools.
"Sql", "Free" and "Easy" are the key factors why developers consider MySQL; whereas "Relational database", "High availability " and "Enterprise class database" are the primary reasons why PostgreSQL is favored.
MySQL and PostgreSQL are both open source tools. PostgreSQL with 5.38K GitHub stars and 1.79K forks on GitHub appears to be more popular than MySQL with 3.91K GitHub stars and 1.54K GitHub forks.
According to the StackShare community, MySQL has a broader approval, being mentioned in 2965 company stacks & 2944 developers stacks; compared to PostgreSQL, which is listed in 2701 company stacks and 2097 developer stacks.
Hello everyone. We have a project that it's like a candidate tracking system. It has candidates, projects, assessments, etc. A consultant senior developer started it by using MongoDB. The thing is that he designed the database like it's a relational DB.
Personally, I didn't imagine that it was a good thing to do. Because you won't have the power of SQL functionalities like
on delete, and more. You have to be very careful, I think things may go unmaintainable very fast. I asked him about this and he said "I don't see a problem doing it like this."
What are your thoughts on this? Did you see examples like this? Should I avoid it or go for it? Any advice is appreciated.
Here is what it looks like in Moon Modeler: https://imgur.com/a/RNwNBNY
It happened to me that you actually construct a relational schema with MongoDB. It is not good. You do not use the modeling benefits of MongoDB, and you do not have the benefits of SQL. So I recommend taking it into MySQL. Since you think in a relational way, it is best you move to MySQL
Specifically, do you need non-normalized data? If not, MySQL is best. Otherwise, MongoDB is best. If you think non-relational, you do not need joins, and the problems with cascade disappear.
What is the best way to think? If you work in terms of whole tree of related object, then you think non-relational and non-normalized.
It makes no sense if you use MongoDB primarily as a relational database. As you scale MongoDB will be more expensive than SQL and as you said without having the advantages of "join" etc.
We use MongoDB in our company. It is useful for us, as we work with different types of devices and we love the functionality of being able to add fields whenever we have a new device type etc. Mongo also allows enables easy scaling and fault tolerance. However, you will have to learn how to manage it.
If you are already comfortable with SQL and don't need NoSQL, stick to SQL. At scale, it is cheaper than Mongo.
I have been using Firebase with almost all my web projects as well as SwiftUI projects. I use it for the database as well as the user authentication via Google.
Is it good enough?? I have learned MySQL but I'm not that comfortable…
So for user authentication and database should I keep using firebase or switch to MySQL or MongoDB?? Or any other combination?
Look if you are comfortable with firebase you can go with it, after all, It's all about development and running your program bug-free and fast, but firebase is costly fo long run and if you are comfortable with that cost then I suggest you go with it.
I’m not an expert, but I can tell you some things:
- Firebase is a great option for a very simple to implement, fast and reliable authentication method. Nonetheless, the free authentications are limited, so if you will potentially have millions of monthly authentications, it’s probably best to take the time to build it into your app directly.
- MySQL is great for simple tables where the data structures are not too complex, but it lacks some speed when you are trying to retrieve time data series. Also, I believe it’s a bit more difficult to distribute.
- MongoDB is great when your information is a bit more complex and you need very peculiar data structures, nested data, dynamic structures, etc. For me at least, it’s a bit more complex to master than MySQL, but the freedom it gives you is incredible. It also performs super fast, especially with time data series, and if I’m not wrong, it’s more scalable.
In general, almost all technologies have their good things, it’s just a matter of what you want to do and then choosing the right ones.
Doing User authentication (oauth) and session management by ourself is kind a challenging, so if possible use firebase itself since it provides these features out of the box.
I'm starting to work on a Jira-like bug tracker web app. This is a hobby project that is mostly a way for me to learn about different technologies and development processes(CI/CD, etc..) so I could be more ready when I start applying for programming jobs.
I'm debating between MySQL, which I'm less familiar with, and MongoDB which I have used in the past.
My two points of consideration are the following:
1) Which one is more likely to be relevant for web dev jobs? While I want to learn new technologies, I prefer learning ones that will make me more hireable in the future.
2) Which one is more flexible when it comes to changing the shape of the stored data? I expect to need to make some changes as the project goes on.
MySQL is still more popular than MongoDB if you look at Google Trends. I've also added MariaDB, which is pretty much a copy from MySQL and its features, and PostgreSQL, which is also a popular relational database.
This is a very good article for comparing MySQL to MongoDB and which one you should use: MongoDB vs MySQL: A Comparative Study on Databases.
If you just want to learn and you have the time, I would opt for using both MySQL and MongoDB. For example using MySQL for most of the site content and MongoDB for saving log messages. As you get more and more logs you start to see the benefits from MongoDB's faster document fetching.
There's really not an awful lot of difference between the two, they have wildly different storage mechanisms but they each have their fairly similar benefits. If you want to learn something that might be a requisite skill for a job, I would also look at alternatives such as time based and column based systems like InfluxDB and the unbelievably fast and flexible ClickHouse. While they may seem like an unlikely fit for a personal bug tracker app, there's no reason not to use them. Since I got into InfluxDB people have been requesting it a lot and I'll be using ClickHouse for all large databases, probably forever. Expand your horizons beyond your competition's.
Hello All, I'm building an app that will enable users to create documents using ckeditor or TinyMCE editor. The data is then stored in a database and retrieved to display to the user, these docs can contain image data also. The number of pages generated for a single document can go up to 1000. Therefore by design, each page is stored in a separate JSON. I'm wondering which database is the right one to choose between ArangoDB and PostgreSQL. Your thoughts, advice please. Thanks, Kashyap
try mongodb first.
Which Graph DB features are you planning to use?
Hey everyone, My users love Microsoft Excel, and so do I. I've been making tools for them in the form of workbooks for years, these tools usually have databases included in the spreadsheets or communicate to free APIs around the web, but now I want to distribute these tools in the form of Excel Add-ins for several reasons.
I want these Add-ins to communicate to a personal server to authorize users, read from my databases, and write to them while they're using their Excel environment. I have never built a website, so what would be a good solution for this, considering I'm new to all of these technologies? I know about the existence of Microsoft Azure, Microsoft SharePoint, and Google Sheets, but I don't know how to feel about those.
Snowflake is a NoSQL database in the cloud, which also accepts SQL calls. Users can obtain an ODBC driver for SnowFlake, which would allow your Excel apps to write/read from the backend, locally.
Just definitely don't use firebase. All of MongoDB, MySQL, MariaDB and PostGreSQL have a lot of community support and history.
I am building a fintech startup with a friend, we decided to use Go for its performance and friendly syntax. We want to know if we should use a web framework or just use the pure net/http lib and also for the databases we put PostgreSQL and MySQL on the table, we want to know which one is better, from the community support to the best open-source implementation?
Postgres is a better option to consider compared to MySQL. With respect to performance, postgres has an edge over MySQL. Don't use net/http for production. Read this https://medium.com/@nate510/don-t-use-go-s-default-http-client-4804cb19f779 I prefer gorilla/mux as it is simple and provides all the basic features. Other lib seems to be an overhead if you just need basic routing.
MySQL and Postgre both are great and awesome and great support, community, support. Whatever will be good. Postgree have some little advantages.
I recommend Elixir, even though I work in a fintech with Go, Elixir is a FP language so in my opinion the immutability is a important topic when working with money.
I'm planning to build a freelance marketplace website, using tools like Next.js, Firebase Authentication, Node.js, but I need to know which type of database is suitable with performance and powerful features. I'm trying to figure out what the best stack is for this project. If anyone has advice please, I’d love to hear more details. Thanks.
Postgres and MySQL are very similar, but Mongo has differences in terms of storage type and the CAP theorem. For your requirement, I prefer Postgres (or MySQL) over MongoDB. Mongo gives you no schema which is not always good. on the other hand, it is more common in NodeJS community, so you may find more articles about Node-Mongo stuff. I suggest to stay with RDBMS if possible.
This is a little about experience. Postgresql is fine. You can use either the related table structure or the json table structure.
We have a ready-made engine for the online exchange and marketplace. To customize it, you only need to know sql. Connecting any database is not a problem. https://falconspace.site/list/solutions
For learning purposes, I am trying to design a dashboard that displays the total revenue from all connected webshops/marketplaces, displaying incoming orders, total orders, etc.
So I will need to get the data (using Node backend) from the Shopify and marketplace APIs, storing this in the database, and get the data from the back end.
My question is:
What kind of database should I use? Is MongoDB fine for storing this kind of data? Or should I go with a SQL database?
Postgres is a solid database with a promising background. In the relational side of database design, I see Postgres as an absolute; Now the arguments and conflicts come in when talking about NoSQL data types. The truth is jsonb in Postgres is efficient and gives a good performance and storage. In a comparison with MongoDB with the same resources (such as RAM and CPU) with better tools and community, I think you should go for Postgres and use jsonb for some of the data. All in all, don't use a NoSQL database just cause you have the data type matching this tech, have both SQL and NoSQL at the same time.
I have found MongoDB easier to work with. Postgres and SQL in general, in my experience, is harder to work with. While Postgres does provide data consistency, MongoDB provides flexibility. I've found the MongoDB ecosystem to be really great with a good community. I've worked with MongoDB in production and it's been great. I really like the aggregation system and using query operators such as $in, $pull, $push.
While my opinion may be unpopular, I have found MongoDB really great for relational data, using aggregations from a code perspective. In general, data types are also more flexible with MongoDB.
I will use PostgreSQL because you have more powerfull feature for data agregation and views (the raw data from shopify and others could be stored as is) and then use views to produce diff. kind of reports unless you wanna create those aggregations/views in nodejs code. HTH
I want to store the data retrieved from multiple APIs and perform some analytics on it. The data stored in DB will never/hardly change. First, I thought it would be better to retrieve the data and create table columns for them, but some data might have different columns than others. So I thought about storing the JSON response from API directly to the table and use it. So which database will be the better choice, PostgreSQL or MongoDB.
Hey Krunal, your requirement sounds pretty clear and specific to what you want to do with that data. My recommendation to you, would be to use MongoDB. Since schema-less IO is faster in MongoDB, your general speed of reading / writing from and to the database would be quick. Additionally, the aggregate framework is very powerful with large data so that is also something that you can use in computing your analytics.
I suggest you to go with
MongoDB, because it is schema-less, i.e., it permits you to easily manipulate the schema of a table. If you want to add a column, it can be done without much effort. Moreover,
MongoDB can deal with more types of data, since the latest is stored as key-value pair. I do not what kind of analysis you are going to do, but
NoSQL is not the best choice if you are going to use complex queries. In addition, if you are working with huge amount of data and you are interested in optimising the performance, I suggest you
Since you are speaking about API and JSON, I guess that you may using
Node JS for fetching API. I suggest you to try
Mongoose, which facilitate the use of
I don't have an unquestionable opinion regarding your use case. I only trend to pick the MongoDB since it is schemaless avoiding null columns that you not always know when it is used (it depends on the source of the data). The only drawback that I could consider is the query's complexity in MongoDB, sometimes it is a bit tricky, when compared to the traditional SQL queries.
This is largely a matter of opinion. I see that someone else responded and recommended MongoDB but since you are doing data analytics, I highly recommend you go with SQL. You're going to have a really hard time normalizing the data when you can't manipulate relationships and bulk edit with a nice update query.
I'm much more experienced with MySQL than any other database and I am having a hard time getting on board with noSQL entirely because it's really hard to query complex data with relationships using noSQL. I'm using Firestore with one of my apps and MongoDB with another app but they both use MySQL for the heavy lifting and then a document database for things like permissions, caching, etc.
It sounds like the type of problem you need to reverse engineer. I'm sure you can imagine what the data sets would look like if you use MongoDB or Postgres. I suspect that putting in a little bit more work up front will pay high dividends and productivity once the data is normalized.
Again - it's largely a matter of preference but I prefer SQL almost every time.
Looks like the use case is to store JSON data. mongoDB and Postgres differ in so many aspects like scaling and consistency. Postgres has excellent JSON support now with the power of SQL. MongoDB is good in handling schema less data. However in this case it seems these differences don’t matter that much. I’d recommend you go with what you are most comfortable with.
MongoDB should be better for unstructured/less structured data.
I need urgent advice from you all! I am making a web-based food ordering platform which includes 3 different ordering methods (Dine-in using QR code scanning + Take away + Home Delivery) and a table reservation system. We are using React for the front-end, and I need your advice if I should use NestJS or ExpressJS for the backend. And regarding the database, which database should I use, MongoDB or PostgreSQL? Which combination will be better? PS. We want to follow the microservice architecture as scalability, reliability, and usability are the most important Non Functional requirements. Expert advice is needed, please. A load of thanks in advance. Kind Regards, Miqdad
I can't speak for the NestJS vs ExpressJS discussion, but I can given a viewpoint on databases.
The main thing to consider around database choice, is what "shape" the data will be in, and the kind of read/write patterns you expect of that data. The blog example shows up so much for DBMS like MongoDB, because it showcases what NoSQL / document storage is very scalable and performant in: mostly isolated documents with a few views / ways to order them and filter them. In your case, I can imagine a number of "relations" already, which suggest a more traditional SQL solution would work well: You have restaurants, they have maybe a few menus (regular, gluten-free etc), with menu items in, which have different prices over time (25% discount on christmas food just after christmas, 50% off pizzas on wednesdays). Then there's a whole different set of "relations" for people ordering, like showing them past orders, which need to refer to the restaurant etc, and credit card transaction information for refunds etc. That to me suggests PostgreSQL, which will scale quite well if you database design is okay.
PostgreSQL also offers you some extensions, which are just amazing for your use-case. https://postgis.net/ for example will let you query for restaurants based on location, without the big cost that comes from constantly using something like Google Maps API to work out which restaurants are near to someone ordering. Partitioning and window functions will be great for your own use internally too, like answering questions of "What types of takeways perform the best for us, Italian, Mexican?" or in combination with PostGIS, answering questions like "What kind of takeways do we need to market to, to improve our selection?".
While these things can all be implemented in MongoDB, you tend to lose some of the convenience of ACID or have to deal with things like eventual consistency, which requires more thinking on the part of your engineers. PostgreSQL offers decent (if more complex) scalablity and redundancy solutions, and is honestly very well proven and plenty of documentation exists on optimising queries.
Hello, i build microservice systems using Angular And Spring (Java) so i can't help with with ur back end choice, BUT, i definitely advice you to use a Nosql database, thus MongoDB of course or even Cassandra if your looking for extreme scalability with zero point of failure. Anyway, Nosql if much more faster then Sql (in your case Postresql DB). All you wanna do with sql can also be done by nosql (not the opposite of course).I also advice you to use docker containers + kubernetes to orchestrate them, if you need scalability and replication, that way your app can support auto scalability (in case ur users number goes high). Best of luck
About PostgreSQL vs MongoDB: short answer. Both are great. Choose what you like the most. Only if you expect millions of users, I‘ll incline with MongoDB.
Fauna is a serverless database where you store data as JSON. Also, you have build in a HTTP GraphQL interface with a full authentication & authorization layer. That means you can skip your Backend and call it directly from the Frontend. With the power, that you can write data transformation function within Fauna with her own language called FQL, we're getting a blazing fast application.
Also, Fauna takes care about scaling and backups (All data are sharded on three different locations on the globe). That means we can fully focus on writing business logic and don't have to worry anymore about infrastructure.
As an advanced user, I prefer Postgres over MySQL. MySQL was the first database I learned from my institute. I always have to undergo that infamous date and time dilemma many Java devs know. Both are adequate for a small project. When I worked on a project with a date and time-intensive data, I spent a lot of time dealing with the conversion and transition, leaving me frustrated. I tried Postgres to see how well it can perform. To my surprise, all became a breeze, and the transactions were faster too. I've been using Postgres ever since, and no more dilemma.
The tool I was hosting was a relatively small NodeJS application which utilized the Spotify API - it was meant to be very low maintenance, but still required intervention (to renew certificates, restart the Node app when it crashed, etc). It was also using old NodeJS frameworks that were either deprecated or very outdated.
I made the decision to migrate the service to Google Cloud Run, and change the underlying database from MySQL to RavenDB, for performance and ease-of-use reasons. The move was relatively easy - the only challenge was around migrating from old libraries I was using to perform REST requests, and of course adjusting from a password authentication system to client certificates
I chose to migrate to RavenDB for their advanced dashboard, which allows you to monitor databases, queries, and cluster node performance. Working with RavenDB has been a much smoother and user-friendly experience compared to MySQL.
Hosting the application in Cloud Run, rather than on a dedicated Linux VM, meant that costs were drastically reduced (from £10/month for an AWS EC2 micro instance to £0 for Cloud Run). The serverless architecture means you're only paying when a request is made to the URL - for a small service such as mine, this was a life saver.
Best of all? I get advanced monitoring statistics from Google Cloud, showing me exactly how many requests I get per day, how much memory/CPU is used, and how many container instances are active to serve traffic. When an error occurs, Cloud Trace keeps track of the exception, the line it occurred on, and how many times the error has been seen.
I knew this migration would lead to a low-maintenance solution that I was hoping for, but I didn't realize how low maintenance it would truly be - I haven't needed to even look at the service since it was migrated, aside from checking I allocated enough cores/memory to the containers.
We started using PostgreSQL because there's no need to upgrade to an enterprise plan to access certain essential features. Postgres is essentially plug-and-play; you download it, install it, and there you go!
Another benefit of using Postgres is that you get to use SQL (Structured Query Language)—which isn't for everyone, but I enjoy how flexible and versatile it is.
Postgres also has point-in-time recovery, which you can export wherever you want—This means you can restore data from any given point in time. With this in mind, if you delete something accidentally, you can go back in time and grab said data without restoring the whole database.
Not to mention Postgres is remarkably fast with several thorough benchmarks comparing it to MongoDB, where Postgres mostly came out on top.
As a startup, managing my own database, backups and even the schemas/migrations are all overhead. Next to that, I needed both Backend and Frontend ways to write to the database. With firebase this is possible, this saved us some time: Some API calls were not needed because I could directly fetch data in the FE.
Offline support & realtime data updates is also supported out of the box. No need to write your own websockets.
Once the startup grows, moving to a different relational database might make sense. But in a pre-product-market-fit startup, Firebase is a good, and cheaper fit!
The pricing model of firebase firestore is a bit risky. But it saves a lot of time to get quickly to market.
Easy to start, lightweight and open source.
When I started with PHP, MySQL was everywhere so this is how I started with it. I am no expert in databases but I started learning joins, stored procedures, triggers, etc. with MySQL.
Recently used it in one of my projects - Picfam.com with Node.js + Express backend
We will be getting data in the form of CSVs. Because the data in a CSV is highly structured, it will be easy to create schemas and it works well in a SQL database as opposed to noSQL. For a SQL database, both mySQL and Postgres are very viable options. Both of them are highly performant, definitely enough for our application, even if we needed to scale drastically. Postgres does include some extra features over mySQL such as table inheritance and function overloading. However, the extra features are not advantageous to us given our database use case. Because both databases seemed to suit our use case perfectly, we chose to use mySQL simply because it is more familiar tech within our team.
One of our biggest technical pillars is to "let the pros manage it", thus we settled on using
Heroku PostgreSQL to manage our SQL cluster. We can take advantage of the free tier and the requests will be fast since it is integrated into Heroku.
PostgreSQL also support Full text search which can come into handy with manually searching through the tables.
All the benefits of relational joins and constraints, with JSON field types in Postgres to allow for flexibility like mongo. Objection ORM makes query building seamless and abstracts away a lot of complexity of SQL queries.
MongoDB tends to get slow with scale and requires a lot of code to maintain consistency across collections as foreign keys and other constraints are harder to implement. PostgreSQL also has a vibrant community with battle tested stability and horizontal scalability when needed.
I was looking into PostgreSQL for a database option solely for the reason that it was popular, had good community support, and was used by many companies planning to develop social media platforms similar to Calosmic.
However, I was very unfamiliar with relational databases and had only gotten acquainted with the basics of column-family database models with technologies like SqlLite3.
Furthermore, I had already been using MongoDB, a document-based database, in a previous project so I was looking for options similar to the aforementioned technology.
Last but not least, I wasn't all too into having to manage my database; I wanted to have a place to store my data, and be able to effectively query, and mutate the data without the hassle of learning SQL or maintaining an entire database. I found out about FaunaDB a couple of weeks ago and was very excited about the native GraphQL support, a combination of both document-based and relational database models, and the low-maintenance structure of the database. I am currently experimenting with using FaunaDB in my stack :)
- One disadvantage I noticed while using FaunaDB and GraphQL is the lack of certain features that one expects when using the latter. Even though FaunaDB has native support for GraphQL it seems as if it's missing numerous features that are commonplace in the language such as unions and interfaces.
Pros of MySQL
- Widely used527
- Open source488
- High availability180
- Cross-platform support160
- Great community104
- Full-text indexing and searching75
- Fast, open, available25
- SSL support16
- Enterprise Version8
- Easy to set up on all platforms7
- NoSQL access to JSON data type2
- Relational database1
- Easy, light, scalable1
- Sequel Pro (best SQL GUI)1
- Replica Support1
Pros of PostgreSQL
- Relational database756
- High availability508
- Enterprise class database436
- Sql + nosql303
- Great community171
- Easy to setup145
- Secure by default128
- Supports Key-Value48
- Great JSON support46
- Cross platform32
- Multiversion concurrency control21
- Open source20
- Heroku Add-on17
- Stable, Simple and Good Performance15
- Lets be serious, what other SQL DB would you go for?12
- Good documentation9
- Intelligent optimizer7
- Transactional DDL6
- One stop solution for all things sql no matter the os5
- Relational database with MVCC4
- Full-Text Search3
- Developer friendly3
- Faster Development3
- Excellent source code2
- Great DB for Transactional system or Application2
- Relational datanbase1
- Free version1
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Cons of MySQL
- Owned by a company with their own agenda16
- Can't roll back schema changes3
Cons of PostgreSQL
- Table/index bloatings10
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