Alternatives to Material logo

Alternatives to Material

Bootstrap, Material Design, Materialize, Angular Material , and Material-UI are the most popular alternatives and competitors to Material.
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What is Material and what are its top alternatives?

Express your creativity with Material, an animation and graphics framework for Google's Material Design and Apple's Flat UI in Swift.
Material is a tool in the Mobile Prototyping & Interaction Design Tools category of a tech stack.
Material is an open source tool with 12K GitHub stars and 1.3K GitHub forks. Here’s a link to Material's open source repository on GitHub

Top Alternatives to Material

  • Bootstrap
    Bootstrap

    Bootstrap is the most popular HTML, CSS, and JS framework for developing responsive, mobile first projects on the web. ...

  • Material Design
    Material Design

    Material Design is a unified system that combines theory, resources, and tools for crafting digital experiences. ...

  • Materialize
    Materialize

    A CSS Framework based on material design.

  • Angular Material
    Angular Material

    Sprint from Zero to App. Hit the ground running with comprehensive, modern UI components that work across the web, mobile and desktop. It allows to create material styled angular apps fast and easy. ...

  • Material-UI
    Material-UI

    Material UI is a library of React UI components that implements Google's Material Design. ...

  • Ant Design
    Ant Design

    An enterprise-class UI design language and React-based implementation. Graceful UI components out of the box, base on React Component. A npm + webpack + babel + dora + dva development framework. ...

  • JavaScript
    JavaScript

    JavaScript is most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic,and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. ...

  • Git
    Git

    Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. ...

Material alternatives & related posts

Bootstrap logo

Bootstrap

55.3K
13.1K
7.7K
Simple and flexible HTML, CSS, and JS for popular UI components and interactions
55.3K
13.1K
+ 1
7.7K
PROS OF BOOTSTRAP
  • 1.6K
    Responsiveness
  • 1.2K
    UI components
  • 943
    Consistent
  • 779
    Great docs
  • 677
    Flexible
  • 472
    HTML, CSS, and JS framework
  • 411
    Open source
  • 375
    Widely used
  • 368
    Customizable
  • 242
    HTML framework
  • 77
    Mobile first
  • 77
    Popular
  • 77
    Easy setup
  • 57
    Great grid system
  • 52
    Great community
  • 38
    Future compatibility
  • 34
    Integration
  • 28
    Very powerful foundational front-end framework
  • 24
    Standard
  • 23
    Javascript plugins
  • 19
    Build faster prototypes
  • 18
    Preprocessors
  • 14
    Grids
  • 9
    Good for a person who hates CSS
  • 8
    Clean
  • 4
    Easy to setup and learn
  • 4
    Rapid development
  • 4
    Love it
  • 3
    Great and easy to use
  • 2
    Easy to use
  • 2
    Devin schumacher rules
  • 2
    Boostrap
  • 2
    Community
  • 2
    Provide angular wrapper
  • 2
    Great and easy
  • 2
    Powerful grid system, Rapid development, Customization
  • 2
    Great customer support
  • 2
    Popularity
  • 2
    Clean and quick frontend development
  • 2
    Great and easy to make a responsive website
  • 2
    Sprzedam opla
  • 1
    Painless front end development
  • 1
    Love the classes?
  • 1
    Responsive design
  • 1
    Poop
  • 1
    So clean and simple
  • 1
    Design Agnostic
  • 1
    Numerous components
  • 1
    Material-ui
  • 1
    Recognizable
  • 1
    Intuitive
  • 1
    Vue
  • 1
    Felxible, comfortable, user-friendly
  • 1
    Pre-Defined components
  • 1
    It's fast
  • 1
    Geo
  • 1
    Not tied to jQuery
  • 1
    The fame
  • 1
    Easy setup2
CONS OF BOOTSTRAP
  • 26
    Javascript is tied to jquery
  • 16
    Every site uses the defaults
  • 15
    Grid system break points aren't ideal
  • 14
    Too much heavy decoration in default look
  • 8
    Verbose styles
  • 1
    Super heavy

related Bootstrap posts

Ganesa Vijayakumar
Full Stack Coder | Technical Lead · | 19 upvotes · 4.7M views

I'm planning to create a web application and also a mobile application to provide a very good shopping experience to the end customers. Shortly, my application will be aggregate the product details from difference sources and giving a clear picture to the user that when and where to buy that product with best in Quality and cost.

I have planned to develop this in many milestones for adding N number of features and I have picked my first part to complete the core part (aggregate the product details from different sources).

As per my work experience and knowledge, I have chosen the followings stacks to this mission.

UI: I would like to develop this application using React, React Router and React Native since I'm a little bit familiar on this and also most importantly these will help on developing both web and mobile apps. In addition, I'm gonna use the stacks JavaScript, jQuery, jQuery UI, jQuery Mobile, Bootstrap wherever required.

Service: I have planned to use Java as the main business layer language as I have 7+ years of experience on this I believe I can do better work using Java than other languages. In addition, I'm thinking to use the stacks Node.js.

Database and ORM: I'm gonna pick MySQL as DB and Hibernate as ORM since I have a piece of good knowledge and also work experience on this combination.

Search Engine: I need to deal with a large amount of product data and it's in-detailed info to provide enough details to end user at the same time I need to focus on the performance area too. so I have decided to use Solr as a search engine for product search and suggestions. In addition, I'm thinking to replace Solr by Elasticsearch once explored/reviewed enough about Elasticsearch.

Host: As of now, my plan to complete the application with decent features first and deploy it in a free hosting environment like Docker and Heroku and then once it is stable then I have planned to use the AWS products Amazon S3, EC2, Amazon RDS and Amazon Route 53. I'm not sure about Microsoft Azure that what is the specialty in it than Heroku and Amazon EC2 Container Service. Anyhow, I will do explore these once again and pick the best suite one for my requirement once I reached this level.

Build and Repositories: I have decided to choose Apache Maven and Git as these are my favorites and also so popular on respectively build and repositories.

Additional Utilities :) - I would like to choose Codacy for code review as their Startup plan will be very helpful to this application. I'm already experienced with Google CheckStyle and SonarQube even I'm looking something on Codacy.

Happy Coding! Suggestions are welcome! :)

Thanks, Ganesa

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Francisco Quintero
Tech Lead at Dev As Pros · | 13 upvotes · 1.6M views

For Etom, a side project. We wanted to test an idea for a future and bigger project.

What Etom does is searching places. Right now, it leverages the Google Maps API. For that, we found a React component that makes this integration easy because using Google Maps API is not possible via normal API requests.

You kind of need a map to work as a proxy between the software and Google Maps API.

We hate configuration(coming from Rails world) so also decided to use Create React App because setting up a React app, with all the toys, it's a hard job.

Thanks to all the people behind Create React App it's easier to start any React application.

We also chose a module called Reactstrap which is Bootstrap UI in React components.

An important thing in this side project(and in the bigger project plan) is to measure visitor through out the app. For that we researched and found that Keen was a good choice(very good free tier limits) and also it is very simple to setup and real simple to send data to

Slack and Trello are our defaults tools to comunicate ideas and discuss topics, so, no brainer using them as well for this project.

See more
Material Design logo

Material Design

595
885
14
Google's Material Design
595
885
+ 1
14
PROS OF MATERIAL DESIGN
  • 5
    They really set a new bar in design
  • 4
    An intuitive design
  • 3
    Simply, And Beautiful
  • 2
    Many great libraries
  • 0
    Composants
CONS OF MATERIAL DESIGN
  • 2
    Sometimes, it can hang the browser

related Material Design posts

Giordanna De Gregoriis
Jr Fullstack Developer at Stefanini Inspiring · | 8 upvotes · 457.9K views

TL;DR: Shall I keep developing with Nuxt.js 2 and wait for a migration guide to Nuxt 3? Or start developing with Vue.js 3 using Vite, and then migrate to Nuxt 3 when it comes out?

Long version: We have an old web application running on AngularJS and Bootstrap for frontend. It is mostly a user interface to easily read and post data to our engine.

We want to redo this web application. Started from scratch using the newest version of Angular 2+ and Material Design for frontend. We haven't even finished rewriting half of the application and it is becoming dreadful to work on.

  • The cold start takes too much time
  • Every little change reload the whole page. Seconds to minutes of development lost looking at a loading blank page just changing css
  • Code maintainability is getting worse... again... as the application grows, since we must create everytime 5 files for a new page (html, component.ts, module.ts, scss, routing.ts)

I'm currently trying to code a Proof of Concept using Nuxt.js and Tailwind CSS. But the thing is, Vue.js 3 is out and has interesting features such as the composition API, teleport and fragments. Also we wish to use the Vite frontend tooling, to improve our time developing regardless of our application size. It feels like a better alternative to Webpack, which is what Nuxt 2 uses.

I'm already trying Nuxt.js with the nuxt-vite experimental module, but many nuxt modules are still incompatible from the time I'm posting this. It is also becoming cumbersome not being able to use teleport or fragments, but that can be circumvented with good components.

What I'm asking is, what should be the wisest decision: keep developing with Nuxt 2 and wait for a migration guide to Nuxt 3? Or start developing with Vue.js 3 using Vite, and then migrate to Nuxt 3 when it comes out?

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Ashish Sharma
Sr. UI Associate at Daffodil Software · | 5 upvotes · 689.2K views

I am a bit confused when to choose Bootstrap vs Material Design or Tailwind CSS, and why? I mean, in which kind of projects we can work with bootstrap/Material/Tailwind CSS? If the design is made up on the grid, we prefer bootstrap, and if flat design, then material design. Similarly, when do we choose tailwind CSS?

Any suggestion would be appreciated?

See more
Materialize logo

Materialize

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1.2K
557
A modern responsive front-end framework based on Material Design
696
1.2K
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557
PROS OF MATERIALIZE
  • 102
    Google material design
  • 74
    Easy to use
  • 74
    Responsive
  • 54
    Modern looks
  • 48
    Open source
  • 42
    Good documentation
  • 37
    Code examples
  • 29
    Extremely light - 29kb
  • 28
    Flexible
  • 15
    Great Support
  • 10
    It looks beautiful
  • 8
    Very nice looking components to quickly build out
  • 7
    Smooth animation
  • 6
    Great Grid System
  • 4
    Great
  • 4
    Ruby gem to integrate in 2 seconds flat
  • 3
    Angular2 Support
  • 2
    MIT Lisence
  • 2
    Friendly api, easy setup, good documentation
  • 2
    Easy setup
  • 1
    React
  • 1
    Grid system
  • 1
    Because of the easy to use and very editable library
  • 1
    Responsivness
  • 1
    Jibberish
  • 1
    Friendly Api
  • 0
    Better class name
  • 0
    Rtl support
CONS OF MATERIALIZE
  • 7
    Mobile errors
  • 6
    Poor Grid System
  • 2
    Unmaintained

related Materialize posts

Angular Material  logo

Angular Material

620
751
32
Easy to use material design for angular
620
751
+ 1
32
PROS OF ANGULAR MATERIAL
  • 12
    Components
  • 8
    Backed by a well known company
  • 4
    Simple
  • 3
    Easy
  • 2
    Very good documentation
  • 2
    Rte
  • 1
    Implements well known material design
CONS OF ANGULAR MATERIAL
  • 4
    Fairly large
  • 2
    Look like 90s stuffs
  • 2
    Suck
  • 2
    Shit

related Angular Material posts

I am a novice to AngularJS, but I have a strong web development background. I need help with the pros and cons of choosing the Angular Material or PrimeNg for our new application. Our new application will be using Angular for the front-end and .NET Core for the Web API. I looked at both tools and leaned toward Angular Material. It would be beneficial if I could obtain some expert advice from the community.

See more
Babak Khademi
Frontend Developer at Freelance · | 2 upvotes · 169.1K views

What is the best and fastest developing UI CSS Framework to couple with Angular Material ? Mostly for making responsive components and writing less sass. I have Bootstrap and Tailwind CSS in mind.

See more
Material-UI logo

Material-UI

2.2K
3.6K
441
Material UI is a library of React UI components that implements Google's Material Design.
2.2K
3.6K
+ 1
441
PROS OF MATERIAL-UI
  • 141
    React
  • 82
    Material Design
  • 60
    Ui components
  • 30
    CSS framework
  • 25
    Component
  • 14
    Looks great
  • 12
    Responsive
  • 12
    Good documentation
  • 9
    LESS
  • 8
    Ui component
  • 7
    Open source
  • 6
    Code examples
  • 6
    Flexible
  • 5
    JSS
  • 3
    Angular
  • 3
    Very accessible
  • 3
    Fun
  • 3
    Supports old browsers out of the box
  • 2
    Typescript support
  • 2
    # of components
  • 2
    Interface
  • 2
    Designed for Server Side Rendering
  • 1
    Support for multiple styling systems
  • 1
    Css
  • 1
    Easy to work with
  • 1
    Accessibility
CONS OF MATERIAL-UI
  • 35
    Hard to learn. Bad documentation
  • 28
    Hard to customize
  • 21
    Hard to understand Docs
  • 8
    Bad performance
  • 7
    Extra library needed for date/time pickers
  • 7
    For editable table component need to use material-table
  • 2
    Typescript Support
  • 1
    # of components

related Material-UI posts

Adebayo Akinlaja
Engineering Manager at Andela · | 30 upvotes · 3.3M views

I picked up an idea to develop and it was no brainer I had to go with React for the frontend. I was faced with challenges when it came to what component framework to use. I had worked extensively with Material-UI but I needed something different that would offer me wider range of well customized components (I became pretty slow at styling). I brought in Evergreen after several sampling and reads online but again, after several prototype development against Evergreen—since I was using TypeScript and I had to import custom Type, it felt exhaustive. After I validated Evergreen with the designs of the idea I was developing, I also noticed I might have to do a lot of styling. I later stumbled on Material Kit, the one specifically made for React . It was promising with beautifully crafted components, most of which fits into the designs pages I had on ground.

A major problem of Material Kit for me is it isn't written in TypeScript and there isn't any plans to support its TypeScript version. I rolled up my sleeve and started converting their components to TypeScript and if you'll ask me, I am still on it.

In summary, I used the Create React App with TypeScript support and I am spending some time converting Material Kit to TypeScript before I start developing against it. All of these components are going to be hosted on Bit.

If you feel I am crazy or I have gotten something wrong, I'll be willing to listen to your opinion. Also, if you want to have a share of whatever TypeScript version of Material Kit I end up coming up with, let me know.

See more

I just finished tweaking styles details of my hobby project MovieGeeks (https://moviegeeks.co/): The minimalist Online Movie Catalog

This time I want to share my thoughts on the Tech-Stack I decided to use on the Frontend: React, React Router, Material-UI and React-Apollo:

  1. React is by far the Front-End "framework" with the biggest community. Some of the newest features like Suspense and Hooks makes it even more awesome and gives you even more power to write clean UI's

  2. Material UI is a very solid and stable set of react components that not only look good, but also are easy to use and customize. This was my first time using this library and I am very happy with the result

  3. React-Apollo in my opinion is the best GraphQL client for a React application. Easy to use and understand and it gives you awesome features out of the box like cache. With libraries like react-apollo-hooks you can even use it with the hooks api which makes the code cleaner and easier to follow.

Any feedback is much appreciated :)

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Ant Design logo

Ant Design

1.1K
1.7K
221
A set of high-quality React components
1.1K
1.7K
+ 1
221
PROS OF ANT DESIGN
  • 47
    Lots of components
  • 33
    Polished and enterprisey look and feel
  • 21
    TypeScript
  • 20
    Easy to integrate
  • 18
    Es6 support
  • 17
    Typescript support
  • 17
    Beautiful and solid
  • 16
    Beautifully Animated Components
  • 15
    Quick Release rhythm
  • 14
    Great documentation
  • 2
    Easy to customize Forms
  • 1
    Opensource and free of cost
CONS OF ANT DESIGN
  • 24
    Less
  • 10
    Large File Size
  • 4
    Poor accessibility support
  • 3
    Dangerous to use as a base in component libraries

related Ant Design posts

Sarmad Chaudhary
Founder & CEO at Ebiz Ltd. · | 9 upvotes · 1.3M views

Hi there!

I just want to have a simple poll/vote...

If you guys need a UI/Component Library for React, Vue.js, or AngularJS, which type of library would you prefer between:

1 ) A single maintained cross-framework library that is 100% compatible and can be integrated with any popular framework like Vue, React, Angular 2, Svelte, etc.

2) A native framework-specific library developed to work only on target framework like ElementUI for Vue, Ant Design for React.

Your advice would help a lot! Thanks in advance :)

See more

Hello, A question to frontend developers. I am a beginner on frontend.

I am building a UI for my company to replace old legacy one with React and this question is about choosing how to apply design to it.

I have Tailwind CSS on one hand and Ant Design on the other (I didnt like mui and Bootstrap doesn't seem to have enterprise components as ant) As far as I understand, tailwind is great. It allows me to literally build an application without touching the css but I have to build my own react components with it. Ant design or mantine has ready to use components which I can use and rapidly build my application.

My question is, is it the right approach to: - Use a component framework for now and replace legacy app. - Introduce tailwind later when I have a frontend resource in hand and then build own component library

Thank you.

See more
JavaScript logo

JavaScript

351K
267.3K
8.1K
Lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class functions
351K
267.3K
+ 1
8.1K
PROS OF JAVASCRIPT
  • 1.7K
    Can be used on frontend/backend
  • 1.5K
    It's everywhere
  • 1.2K
    Lots of great frameworks
  • 896
    Fast
  • 745
    Light weight
  • 425
    Flexible
  • 392
    You can't get a device today that doesn't run js
  • 286
    Non-blocking i/o
  • 237
    Ubiquitousness
  • 191
    Expressive
  • 55
    Extended functionality to web pages
  • 49
    Relatively easy language
  • 46
    Executed on the client side
  • 30
    Relatively fast to the end user
  • 25
    Pure Javascript
  • 21
    Functional programming
  • 15
    Async
  • 13
    Full-stack
  • 12
    Its everywhere
  • 12
    Future Language of The Web
  • 12
    Setup is easy
  • 11
    JavaScript is the New PHP
  • 11
    Because I love functions
  • 10
    Like it or not, JS is part of the web standard
  • 9
    Expansive community
  • 9
    Can be used in backend, frontend and DB
  • 9
    Easy
  • 9
    Everyone use it
  • 8
    Most Popular Language in the World
  • 8
    Can be used both as frontend and backend as well
  • 8
    Powerful
  • 8
    For the good parts
  • 8
    No need to use PHP
  • 8
    Easy to hire developers
  • 7
    Love-hate relationship
  • 7
    Agile, packages simple to use
  • 7
    Its fun and fast
  • 7
    Hard not to use
  • 7
    Nice
  • 7
    Versitile
  • 7
    Evolution of C
  • 7
    Photoshop has 3 JS runtimes built in
  • 7
    It's fun
  • 7
    Popularized Class-Less Architecture & Lambdas
  • 7
    Supports lambdas and closures
  • 6
    Can be used on frontend/backend/Mobile/create PRO Ui
  • 6
    1.6K Can be used on frontend/backend
  • 6
    Client side JS uses the visitors CPU to save Server Res
  • 6
    It let's me use Babel & Typescript
  • 6
    Easy to make something
  • 5
    What to add
  • 5
    Clojurescript
  • 5
    Stockholm Syndrome
  • 5
    Function expressions are useful for callbacks
  • 5
    Scope manipulation
  • 5
    Everywhere
  • 5
    Client processing
  • 5
    Promise relationship
  • 4
    Because it is so simple and lightweight
  • 4
    Only Programming language on browser
  • 1
    Easy to learn
  • 1
    Not the best
  • 1
    Hard to learn
  • 1
    Easy to understand
  • 1
    Test
  • 1
    Test2
  • 1
    Subskill #4
  • 0
    Hard 彤
CONS OF JAVASCRIPT
  • 22
    A constant moving target, too much churn
  • 20
    Horribly inconsistent
  • 15
    Javascript is the New PHP
  • 9
    No ability to monitor memory utilitization
  • 8
    Shows Zero output in case of ANY error
  • 7
    Thinks strange results are better than errors
  • 6
    Can be ugly
  • 3
    No GitHub
  • 2
    Slow

related JavaScript posts

Zach Holman

Oof. I have truly hated JavaScript for a long time. Like, for over twenty years now. Like, since the Clinton administration. It's always been a nightmare to deal with all of the aspects of that silly language.

But wowza, things have changed. Tooling is just way, way better. I'm primarily web-oriented, and using React and Apollo together the past few years really opened my eyes to building rich apps. And I deeply apologize for using the phrase rich apps; I don't think I've ever said such Enterprisey words before.

But yeah, things are different now. I still love Rails, and still use it for a lot of apps I build. But it's that silly rich apps phrase that's the problem. Users have way more comprehensive expectations than they did even five years ago, and the JS community does a good job at building tools and tech that tackle the problems of making heavy, complicated UI and frontend work.

Obviously there's a lot of things happening here, so just saying "JavaScript isn't terrible" might encompass a huge amount of libraries and frameworks. But if you're like me, yeah, give things another shot- I'm somehow not hating on JavaScript anymore and... gulp... I kinda love it.

See more
Conor Myhrvold
Tech Brand Mgr, Office of CTO at Uber · | 44 upvotes · 10.1M views

How Uber developed the open source, end-to-end distributed tracing Jaeger , now a CNCF project:

Distributed tracing is quickly becoming a must-have component in the tools that organizations use to monitor their complex, microservice-based architectures. At Uber, our open source distributed tracing system Jaeger saw large-scale internal adoption throughout 2016, integrated into hundreds of microservices and now recording thousands of traces every second.

Here is the story of how we got here, from investigating off-the-shelf solutions like Zipkin, to why we switched from pull to push architecture, and how distributed tracing will continue to evolve:

https://eng.uber.com/distributed-tracing/

(GitHub Pages : https://www.jaegertracing.io/, GitHub: https://github.com/jaegertracing/jaeger)

Bindings/Operator: Python Java Node.js Go C++ Kubernetes JavaScript OpenShift C# Apache Spark

See more
Git logo

Git

289.9K
174.3K
6.6K
Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
289.9K
174.3K
+ 1
6.6K
PROS OF GIT
  • 1.4K
    Distributed version control system
  • 1.1K
    Efficient branching and merging
  • 959
    Fast
  • 845
    Open source
  • 726
    Better than svn
  • 368
    Great command-line application
  • 306
    Simple
  • 291
    Free
  • 232
    Easy to use
  • 222
    Does not require server
  • 27
    Distributed
  • 22
    Small & Fast
  • 18
    Feature based workflow
  • 15
    Staging Area
  • 13
    Most wide-spread VSC
  • 11
    Role-based codelines
  • 11
    Disposable Experimentation
  • 7
    Frictionless Context Switching
  • 6
    Data Assurance
  • 5
    Efficient
  • 4
    Just awesome
  • 3
    Github integration
  • 3
    Easy branching and merging
  • 2
    Compatible
  • 2
    Flexible
  • 2
    Possible to lose history and commits
  • 1
    Rebase supported natively; reflog; access to plumbing
  • 1
    Light
  • 1
    Team Integration
  • 1
    Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
  • 1
    Easy
  • 1
    Flexible, easy, Safe, and fast
  • 1
    CLI is great, but the GUI tools are awesome
  • 1
    It's what you do
  • 0
    Phinx
CONS OF GIT
  • 16
    Hard to learn
  • 11
    Inconsistent command line interface
  • 9
    Easy to lose uncommitted work
  • 7
    Worst documentation ever possibly made
  • 5
    Awful merge handling
  • 3
    Unexistent preventive security flows
  • 3
    Rebase hell
  • 2
    When --force is disabled, cannot rebase
  • 2
    Ironically even die-hard supporters screw up badly
  • 1
    Doesn't scale for big data

related Git posts

Simon Reymann
Senior Fullstack Developer at QUANTUSflow Software GmbH · | 30 upvotes · 9.3M views

Our whole DevOps stack consists of the following tools:

  • GitHub (incl. GitHub Pages/Markdown for Documentation, GettingStarted and HowTo's) for collaborative review and code management tool
  • Respectively Git as revision control system
  • SourceTree as Git GUI
  • Visual Studio Code as IDE
  • CircleCI for continuous integration (automatize development process)
  • Prettier / TSLint / ESLint as code linter
  • SonarQube as quality gate
  • Docker as container management (incl. Docker Compose for multi-container application management)
  • VirtualBox for operating system simulation tests
  • Kubernetes as cluster management for docker containers
  • Heroku for deploying in test environments
  • nginx as web server (preferably used as facade server in production environment)
  • SSLMate (using OpenSSL) for certificate management
  • Amazon EC2 (incl. Amazon S3) for deploying in stage (production-like) and production environments
  • PostgreSQL as preferred database system
  • Redis as preferred in-memory database/store (great for caching)

The main reason we have chosen Kubernetes over Docker Swarm is related to the following artifacts:

  • Key features: Easy and flexible installation, Clear dashboard, Great scaling operations, Monitoring is an integral part, Great load balancing concepts, Monitors the condition and ensures compensation in the event of failure.
  • Applications: An application can be deployed using a combination of pods, deployments, and services (or micro-services).
  • Functionality: Kubernetes as a complex installation and setup process, but it not as limited as Docker Swarm.
  • Monitoring: It supports multiple versions of logging and monitoring when the services are deployed within the cluster (Elasticsearch/Kibana (ELK), Heapster/Grafana, Sysdig cloud integration).
  • Scalability: All-in-one framework for distributed systems.
  • Other Benefits: Kubernetes is backed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), huge community among container orchestration tools, it is an open source and modular tool that works with any OS.
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Tymoteusz Paul
Devops guy at X20X Development LTD · | 23 upvotes · 8.3M views

Often enough I have to explain my way of going about setting up a CI/CD pipeline with multiple deployment platforms. Since I am a bit tired of yapping the same every single time, I've decided to write it up and share with the world this way, and send people to read it instead ;). I will explain it on "live-example" of how the Rome got built, basing that current methodology exists only of readme.md and wishes of good luck (as it usually is ;)).

It always starts with an app, whatever it may be and reading the readmes available while Vagrant and VirtualBox is installing and updating. Following that is the first hurdle to go over - convert all the instruction/scripts into Ansible playbook(s), and only stopping when doing a clear vagrant up or vagrant reload we will have a fully working environment. As our Vagrant environment is now functional, it's time to break it! This is the moment to look for how things can be done better (too rigid/too lose versioning? Sloppy environment setup?) and replace them with the right way to do stuff, one that won't bite us in the backside. This is the point, and the best opportunity, to upcycle the existing way of doing dev environment to produce a proper, production-grade product.

I should probably digress here for a moment and explain why. I firmly believe that the way you deploy production is the same way you should deploy develop, shy of few debugging-friendly setting. This way you avoid the discrepancy between how production work vs how development works, which almost always causes major pains in the back of the neck, and with use of proper tools should mean no more work for the developers. That's why we start with Vagrant as developer boxes should be as easy as vagrant up, but the meat of our product lies in Ansible which will do meat of the work and can be applied to almost anything: AWS, bare metal, docker, LXC, in open net, behind vpn - you name it.

We must also give proper consideration to monitoring and logging hoovering at this point. My generic answer here is to grab Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Logstash. While for different use cases there may be better solutions, this one is well battle-tested, performs reasonably and is very easy to scale both vertically (within some limits) and horizontally. Logstash rules are easy to write and are well supported in maintenance through Ansible, which as I've mentioned earlier, are at the very core of things, and creating triggers/reports and alerts based on Elastic and Kibana is generally a breeze, including some quite complex aggregations.

If we are happy with the state of the Ansible it's time to move on and put all those roles and playbooks to work. Namely, we need something to manage our CI/CD pipelines. For me, the choice is obvious: TeamCity. It's modern, robust and unlike most of the light-weight alternatives, it's transparent. What I mean by that is that it doesn't tell you how to do things, doesn't limit your ways to deploy, or test, or package for that matter. Instead, it provides a developer-friendly and rich playground for your pipelines. You can do most the same with Jenkins, but it has a quite dated look and feel to it, while also missing some key functionality that must be brought in via plugins (like quality REST API which comes built-in with TeamCity). It also comes with all the common-handy plugins like Slack or Apache Maven integration.

The exact flow between CI and CD varies too greatly from one application to another to describe, so I will outline a few rules that guide me in it: 1. Make build steps as small as possible. This way when something breaks, we know exactly where, without needing to dig and root around. 2. All security credentials besides development environment must be sources from individual Vault instances. Keys to those containers should exist only on the CI/CD box and accessible by a few people (the less the better). This is pretty self-explanatory, as anything besides dev may contain sensitive data and, at times, be public-facing. Because of that appropriate security must be present. TeamCity shines in this department with excellent secrets-management. 3. Every part of the build chain shall consume and produce artifacts. If it creates nothing, it likely shouldn't be its own build. This way if any issue shows up with any environment or version, all developer has to do it is grab appropriate artifacts to reproduce the issue locally. 4. Deployment builds should be directly tied to specific Git branches/tags. This enables much easier tracking of what caused an issue, including automated identifying and tagging the author (nothing like automated regression testing!).

Speaking of deployments, I generally try to keep it simple but also with a close eye on the wallet. Because of that, I am more than happy with AWS or another cloud provider, but also constantly peeking at the loads and do we get the value of what we are paying for. Often enough the pattern of use is not constantly erratic, but rather has a firm baseline which could be migrated away from the cloud and into bare metal boxes. That is another part where this approach strongly triumphs over the common Docker and CircleCI setup, where you are very much tied in to use cloud providers and getting out is expensive. Here to embrace bare-metal hosting all you need is a help of some container-based self-hosting software, my personal preference is with Proxmox and LXC. Following that all you must write are ansible scripts to manage hardware of Proxmox, similar way as you do for Amazon EC2 (ansible supports both greatly) and you are good to go. One does not exclude another, quite the opposite, as they can live in great synergy and cut your costs dramatically (the heavier your base load, the bigger the savings) while providing production-grade resiliency.

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