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Apache Kudu vs Druid: What are the differences?


Apache Kudu and Druid are two popular distributed data processing systems that are often used for real-time analytics and data management. While both offer similar capabilities, they have some key differences that set them apart. In this article, we will explore six important differences between Apache Kudu and Druid.

  1. Data Storage and Retrieval: Apache Kudu is a columnar storage engine that supports efficient read and write operations for structured data. It provides fast random access to individual records and is optimized for real-time analytics. On the other hand, Druid is a column-oriented, distributed data store that is purpose-built for fast, ad-hoc queries and real-time data exploration. It offers high-speed ingest and sub-second query response times.

  2. Data Model and Schema: Apache Kudu follows a schema-on-write approach, where the schema of the data needs to be defined upfront before writing it to the system. It enforces strict column and data type constraints. In contrast, Druid follows a schema-on-read approach, allowing it to handle flexible and evolving schemas. It supports dynamic column addition and schema changes without downtime.

  3. Scalability and Flexibility: Apache Kudu is designed to scale horizontally, supporting large-scale deployments and petabyte-scale workloads. It integrates well with other components of the Apache Hadoop ecosystem, such as HDFS and Apache Spark. On the other hand, Druid is built for massive scalability and can handle high ingestion rates and query loads. It can be deployed on commodity hardware or in cloud environments.

  4. Data Ingestion and Processing: Apache Kudu supports real-time data ingestion through the Apache Flume or Apache Kafka frameworks. It also provides integration with Apache Impala for SQL-like interactive query capabilities. Druid, on the other hand, supports real-time and batch data ingestion through various methods, including native ingestion, Kafka, and Apache Flink. It offers a powerful SQL-like query language called Druid Query Language (DQL).

  5. Data Partitioning and Indexing: Apache Kudu uses range partitioning and allows for automatic data shuffling based on hash partitioning. It uses bitmap and zone maps for efficient data indexing and pruning. In contrast, Druid uses a segmented design that divides the data into time-based segments, allowing for efficient ingestion and query processing. It leverages inverted indices and bitmap indexes for faster querying.

  6. Use Cases and Workloads: Apache Kudu is well-suited for use cases that require fast random access to individual records, such as real-time analytics, time series analysis, and machine learning. It is commonly used in industries like finance, e-commerce, and telecommunications. On the other hand, Druid is ideal for scenarios that involve high ingestion rates, real-time analytics, and interactive exploration of large volumes of event-based or time-series data. It is commonly used in industries like advertising, gaming, and IoT.

In summary, Apache Kudu and Druid have important differences in terms of their data storage and retrieval models, data schemas, scalability, data ingestion and processing mechanisms, partitioning and indexing techniques, and their target use cases. These differences make them suitable for different types of analytics and data management requirements.

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Pros of Apache Kudu
Pros of Druid
  • 10
    Realtime Analytics
  • 15
    Real Time Aggregations
  • 6
    Batch and Real-Time Ingestion
  • 5
  • 3
  • 2
    Combining stream and historical analytics
  • 1

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Cons of Apache Kudu
Cons of Druid
  • 1
    Restart time
  • 3
    Limited sql support
  • 2
    Joins are not supported well
  • 1

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What is Apache Kudu?

A new addition to the open source Apache Hadoop ecosystem, Kudu completes Hadoop's storage layer to enable fast analytics on fast data.

What is Druid?

Druid is a distributed, column-oriented, real-time analytics data store that is commonly used to power exploratory dashboards in multi-tenant environments. Druid excels as a data warehousing solution for fast aggregate queries on petabyte sized data sets. Druid supports a variety of flexible filters, exact calculations, approximate algorithms, and other useful calculations.

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What companies use Apache Kudu?
What companies use Druid?
See which teams inside your own company are using Apache Kudu or Druid.
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What tools integrate with Druid?

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Blog Posts

Dec 22 2021 at 5:41AM


MySQLKafkaApache Spark+6
What are some alternatives to Apache Kudu and Druid?
Partitioning means that Cassandra can distribute your data across multiple machines in an application-transparent matter. Cassandra will automatically repartition as machines are added and removed from the cluster. Row store means that like relational databases, Cassandra organizes data by rows and columns. The Cassandra Query Language (CQL) is a close relative of SQL.
Apache HBase is an open-source, distributed, versioned, column-oriented store modeled after Google' Bigtable: A Distributed Storage System for Structured Data by Chang et al. Just as Bigtable leverages the distributed data storage provided by the Google File System, HBase provides Bigtable-like capabilities on top of Apache Hadoop.
Apache Spark
Spark is a fast and general processing engine compatible with Hadoop data. It can run in Hadoop clusters through YARN or Spark's standalone mode, and it can process data in HDFS, HBase, Cassandra, Hive, and any Hadoop InputFormat. It is designed to perform both batch processing (similar to MapReduce) and new workloads like streaming, interactive queries, and machine learning.
Apache Impala
Impala is a modern, open source, MPP SQL query engine for Apache Hadoop. Impala is shipped by Cloudera, MapR, and Amazon. With Impala, you can query data, whether stored in HDFS or Apache HBase – including SELECT, JOIN, and aggregate functions – in real time.
The Apache Hadoop software library is a framework that allows for the distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of computers using simple programming models. It is designed to scale up from single servers to thousands of machines, each offering local computation and storage.
See all alternatives