Alternatives to Lodash logo

Alternatives to Lodash

jQuery, Underscore, Ramda, ES6, and RxJS are the most popular alternatives and competitors to Lodash.
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What is Lodash and what are its top alternatives?

A JavaScript utility library delivering consistency, modularity, performance, & extras. It provides utility functions for common programming tasks using the functional programming paradigm.
Lodash is a tool in the Javascript Utilities & Libraries category of a tech stack.
Lodash is an open source tool with 59.3K GitHub stars and 7K GitHub forks. Here’s a link to Lodash's open source repository on GitHub

Top Alternatives to Lodash

  • jQuery
    jQuery

    jQuery is a cross-platform JavaScript library designed to simplify the client-side scripting of HTML. ...

  • Underscore
    Underscore

    A JavaScript library that provides a whole mess of useful functional programming helpers without extending any built-in objects. ...

  • Ramda
    Ramda

    It emphasizes a purer functional style. Immutability and side-effect free functions are at the heart of its design philosophy. This can help you get the job done with simple, elegant code. ...

  • ES6
    ES6

    Goals for ECMAScript 2015 include providing better support for large applications, library creation, and for use of ECMAScript as a compilation target for other languages. Some of its major enhancements include modules, class declarations, lexical block scoping, iterators and generators, promises for asynchronous programming, destructuring patterns, and proper tail calls. ...

  • RxJS
    RxJS

    RxJS is a library for reactive programming using Observables, to make it easier to compose asynchronous or callback-based code. This project is a rewrite of Reactive-Extensions/RxJS with better performance, better modularity, better debuggable call stacks, while staying mostly backwards compatible, with some breaking changes that reduce the API surface. ...

  • TypeScript
    TypeScript

    TypeScript is a language for application-scale JavaScript development. It's a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript. ...

  • JavaScript
    JavaScript

    JavaScript is most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic,and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. ...

  • Git
    Git

    Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. ...

Lodash alternatives & related posts

jQuery logo

jQuery

190.8K
67.3K
6.6K
The Write Less, Do More, JavaScript Library.
190.8K
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6.6K
PROS OF JQUERY
  • 1.3K
    Cross-browser
  • 957
    Dom manipulation
  • 809
    Power
  • 660
    Open source
  • 610
    Plugins
  • 459
    Easy
  • 395
    Popular
  • 350
    Feature-rich
  • 281
    Html5
  • 227
    Light weight
  • 93
    Simple
  • 84
    Great community
  • 79
    CSS3 Compliant
  • 69
    Mobile friendly
  • 67
    Fast
  • 43
    Intuitive
  • 42
    Swiss Army knife for webdev
  • 35
    Huge Community
  • 11
    Easy to learn
  • 4
    Clean code
  • 3
    Because of Ajax request :)
  • 2
    Powerful
  • 2
    Nice
  • 2
    Just awesome
  • 2
    Used everywhere
  • 1
    Improves productivity
  • 1
    Javascript
  • 1
    Easy Setup
  • 1
    Open Source, Simple, Easy Setup
  • 1
    It Just Works
  • 1
    Industry acceptance
  • 1
    Allows great manipulation of HTML and CSS
  • 1
    Widely Used
  • 1
    I love jQuery
CONS OF JQUERY
  • 6
    Large size
  • 5
    Sometimes inconsistent API
  • 5
    Encourages DOM as primary data source
  • 2
    Live events is overly complex feature

related jQuery posts

Kir Shatrov
Engineering Lead at Shopify · | 22 upvotes · 2.1M views

The client-side stack of Shopify Admin has been a long journey. It started with HTML templates, jQuery and Prototype. We moved to Batman.js, our in-house Single-Page-Application framework (SPA), in 2013. Then, we re-evaluated our approach and moved back to statically rendered HTML and vanilla JavaScript. As the front-end ecosystem matured, we felt that it was time to rethink our approach again. Last year, we started working on moving Shopify Admin to React and TypeScript.

Many things have changed since the days of jQuery and Batman. JavaScript execution is much faster. We can easily render our apps on the server to do less work on the client, and the resources and tooling for developers are substantially better with React than we ever had with Batman.

#FrameworksFullStack #Languages

See more
Ganesa Vijayakumar
Full Stack Coder | Technical Lead · | 19 upvotes · 4.9M views

I'm planning to create a web application and also a mobile application to provide a very good shopping experience to the end customers. Shortly, my application will be aggregate the product details from difference sources and giving a clear picture to the user that when and where to buy that product with best in Quality and cost.

I have planned to develop this in many milestones for adding N number of features and I have picked my first part to complete the core part (aggregate the product details from different sources).

As per my work experience and knowledge, I have chosen the followings stacks to this mission.

UI: I would like to develop this application using React, React Router and React Native since I'm a little bit familiar on this and also most importantly these will help on developing both web and mobile apps. In addition, I'm gonna use the stacks JavaScript, jQuery, jQuery UI, jQuery Mobile, Bootstrap wherever required.

Service: I have planned to use Java as the main business layer language as I have 7+ years of experience on this I believe I can do better work using Java than other languages. In addition, I'm thinking to use the stacks Node.js.

Database and ORM: I'm gonna pick MySQL as DB and Hibernate as ORM since I have a piece of good knowledge and also work experience on this combination.

Search Engine: I need to deal with a large amount of product data and it's in-detailed info to provide enough details to end user at the same time I need to focus on the performance area too. so I have decided to use Solr as a search engine for product search and suggestions. In addition, I'm thinking to replace Solr by Elasticsearch once explored/reviewed enough about Elasticsearch.

Host: As of now, my plan to complete the application with decent features first and deploy it in a free hosting environment like Docker and Heroku and then once it is stable then I have planned to use the AWS products Amazon S3, EC2, Amazon RDS and Amazon Route 53. I'm not sure about Microsoft Azure that what is the specialty in it than Heroku and Amazon EC2 Container Service. Anyhow, I will do explore these once again and pick the best suite one for my requirement once I reached this level.

Build and Repositories: I have decided to choose Apache Maven and Git as these are my favorites and also so popular on respectively build and repositories.

Additional Utilities :) - I would like to choose Codacy for code review as their Startup plan will be very helpful to this application. I'm already experienced with Google CheckStyle and SonarQube even I'm looking something on Codacy.

Happy Coding! Suggestions are welcome! :)

Thanks, Ganesa

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Underscore logo

Underscore

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JavaScript's utility _ belt
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PROS OF UNDERSCORE
  • 85
    Utility
  • 55
    Simple
  • 40
    Functional programming
  • 32
    Fast
  • 28
    Open source
  • 20
    Backbone
  • 16
    Javascript
  • 8
    Annotated source code
  • 6
    Library
CONS OF UNDERSCORE
    Be the first to leave a con

    related Underscore posts

    Tim Abbott
    Shared insights
    on
    UnderscoreUnderscoreTypeScriptTypeScript
    at

    We use Underscore because it's a reasonable library for providing all the reasonable helper functions missing from JavaScript ES5 (or that perform poorly if you use the default ES5 version).

    Since we're migrating the codebase to TypeScript , we'll likely end up removing most usage of it and ultimately no longer needing it, but we've been very happy with the library.

    See more
    Shared insights
    on
    Backbone.jsBackbone.jsUnderscoreUnderscore

    Exploring my MVC solution for #DizzyCard, have have zeroed in on Backbone.js as the solution that best matches my requirements and style, that brings with it a requirement to use Underscore too which looks like a useful toolkit

    See more
    Ramda logo

    Ramda

    289
    83
    3
    A practical functional library for JavaScript programmers
    289
    83
    + 1
    3
    PROS OF RAMDA
    • 2
      Automatically curried
    • 1
      Point free programming
    CONS OF RAMDA
      Be the first to leave a con

      related Ramda posts

      ES6 logo

      ES6

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      The next version of JavaScript
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      PROS OF ES6
      • 109
        ES6 code is shorter than traditional JS
      • 52
        Module System Standardized
      • 2
        Extremly compact
      • 2
        Destructuring Assignment
      CONS OF ES6
      • 1
        Suffers from baggage

      related ES6 posts

      Nick Parsons
      Building cool things on the internet 🛠️ at Stream · | 35 upvotes · 4M views

      Winds 2.0 is an open source Podcast/RSS reader developed by Stream with a core goal to enable a wide range of developers to contribute.

      We chose JavaScript because nearly every developer knows or can, at the very least, read JavaScript. With ES6 and Node.js v10.x.x, it’s become a very capable language. Async/Await is powerful and easy to use (Async/Await vs Promises). Babel allows us to experiment with next-generation JavaScript (features that are not in the official JavaScript spec yet). Yarn allows us to consistently install packages quickly (and is filled with tons of new tricks)

      We’re using JavaScript for everything – both front and backend. Most of our team is experienced with Go and Python, so Node was not an obvious choice for this app.

      Sure... there will be haters who refuse to acknowledge that there is anything remotely positive about JavaScript (there are even rants on Hacker News about Node.js); however, without writing completely in JavaScript, we would not have seen the results we did.

      #FrameworksFullStack #Languages

      See more
      Ali Soueidan
      Creative Web Developer at Ali Soueidan · | 18 upvotes · 1.2M views

      Application and Data: Since my personal website ( https://alisoueidan.com ) is a SPA I've chosen to use Vue.js, as a framework to create it. After a short skeptical phase I immediately felt in love with the single file component concept! I also used vuex for state management, which makes working with several components, which are communicating with each other even more fun and convenient to use. Of course, using Vue requires using JavaScript as well, since it is the basis of it.

      For markup and style, I used Pug and Sass, since they’re the perfect match to me. I love the clean and strict syntax of both of them and even more that their structure is almost similar. Also, both of them come with an expanded functionality such as mixins, loops and so on related to their “siblings” (HTML and CSS). Both of them require nesting and prevent untidy code, which can be a huge advantage when working in teams. I used JSON to store data (since the data quantity on my website is moderate) – JSON works also good in combo with Pug, using for loops, based on the JSON Objects for example.

      To send my contact form I used PHP, since sending emails using PHP is still relatively convenient, simple and easy done.

      DevOps: Of course, I used Git to do my version management (which I even do in smaller projects like my website just have an additional backup of my code). On top of that I used GitHub since it now supports private repository for free accounts (which I am using for my own). I use Babel to use ES6 functionality such as arrow functions and so on, and still don’t losing cross browser compatibility.

      Side note: I used npm for package management. 🎉

      *Business Tools: * I use Asana to organize my project. This is a big advantage to me, even if I work alone, since “private” projects can get interrupted for some time. By using Asana I still know (even after month of not touching a project) what I’ve done, on which task I was at last working on and what still is to do. Working in Teams (for enterprise I’d take on Jira instead) of course Asana is a Tool which I really love to use as well. All the graphics on my website are SVG which I have created with Adobe Illustrator and adjusted within the SVG code or by using JavaScript or CSS (SASS).

      See more
      RxJS logo

      RxJS

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      The Reactive Extensions for JavaScript
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      PROS OF RXJS
      • 6
        Easier async data chaining and combining
      • 3
        Steep learning curve, but offers predictable operations
      • 2
        Observable subjects
      • 2
        Ability to build your own stream
      • 2
        Works great with any state management implementation
      • 2
        Easier testing
      • 1
        Lot of build-in operators
      • 1
        Simplifies state management
      • 1
        Great for push based architecture
      • 1
        Documentation
      CONS OF RXJS
      • 3
        Steep learning curve

      related RxJS posts

      Eyas Sharaiha
      Software Engineer at Google · | 28 upvotes · 1.1M views
      Shared insights
      on
      TypeScriptTypeScriptAngularAngularRxJSRxJS
      at

      One TypeScript / Angular 2 code health recommendation at Google is how to simplify dealing with RxJS Observables. Two common options in Angular are subscribing to an Observable inside of a Component's TypeScript code, versus using something like the AsyncPipe (foo | async) from the template html. We typically recommend the latter for most straightforward use cases (code without side effects, etc.)

      I typically review a fair amount of Angular code at work. One thing I typically encourage is using plain Observables in an Angular Component, and using AsyncPipe (foo | async) from the template html to handle subscription, rather than directly subscribing to an observable in a component TS file.

      Subscribing in components

      Unless you know a subscription you're starting in a component is very finite (e.g. an HTTP request with no retry logic, etc), subscriptions you make in a Component must:

      1. Be closed, stopped, or cancelled when exiting a component (e.g. when navigating away from a page),
      2. Only be opened (subscribed) when a component is actually loaded/visible (i.e. in ngOnInit rather than in a constructor).

      AsyncPipe can take care of that for you

      Instead of manually implementing component lifecycle hooks, remembering to subscribe and unsubscribe to an Observable, AsyncPipe can do that for you.

      I'm sharing a version of this recommendation with some best practices and code samples.

      #Typescript #Angular #RXJS #Async #Frontend

      See more
      Praveen Mooli
      Engineering Manager at Taylor and Francis · | 19 upvotes · 3.9M views

      We are in the process of building a modern content platform to deliver our content through various channels. We decided to go with Microservices architecture as we wanted scale. Microservice architecture style is an approach to developing an application as a suite of small independently deployable services built around specific business capabilities. You can gain modularity, extensive parallelism and cost-effective scaling by deploying services across many distributed servers. Microservices modularity facilitates independent updates/deployments, and helps to avoid single point of failure, which can help prevent large-scale outages. We also decided to use Event Driven Architecture pattern which is a popular distributed asynchronous architecture pattern used to produce highly scalable applications. The event-driven architecture is made up of highly decoupled, single-purpose event processing components that asynchronously receive and process events.

      To build our #Backend capabilities we decided to use the following: 1. #Microservices - Java with Spring Boot , Node.js with ExpressJS and Python with Flask 2. #Eventsourcingframework - Amazon Kinesis , Amazon Kinesis Firehose , Amazon SNS , Amazon SQS, AWS Lambda 3. #Data - Amazon RDS , Amazon DynamoDB , Amazon S3 , MongoDB Atlas

      To build #Webapps we decided to use Angular 2 with RxJS

      #Devops - GitHub , Travis CI , Terraform , Docker , Serverless

      See more
      TypeScript logo

      TypeScript

      92.5K
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      A superset of JavaScript that compiles to clean JavaScript output
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      PROS OF TYPESCRIPT
      • 174
        More intuitive and type safe javascript
      • 106
        Type safe
      • 80
        JavaScript superset
      • 48
        The best AltJS ever
      • 27
        Best AltJS for BackEnd
      • 15
        Powerful type system, including generics & JS features
      • 11
        Compile time errors
      • 11
        Nice and seamless hybrid of static and dynamic typing
      • 10
        Aligned with ES development for compatibility
      • 7
        Angular
      • 7
        Structural, rather than nominal, subtyping
      • 5
        Starts and ends with JavaScript
      • 1
        Garbage collection
      CONS OF TYPESCRIPT
      • 5
        Code may look heavy and confusing
      • 4
        Hype

      related TypeScript posts

      Yshay Yaacobi

      Our first experience with .NET core was when we developed our OSS feature management platform - Tweek (https://github.com/soluto/tweek). We wanted to create a solution that is able to run anywhere (super important for OSS), has excellent performance characteristics and can fit in a multi-container architecture. We decided to implement our rule engine processor in F# , our main service was implemented in C# and other components were built using JavaScript / TypeScript and Go.

      Visual Studio Code worked really well for us as well, it worked well with all our polyglot services and the .Net core integration had great cross-platform developer experience (to be fair, F# was a bit trickier) - actually, each of our team members used a different OS (Ubuntu, macos, windows). Our production deployment ran for a time on Docker Swarm until we've decided to adopt Kubernetes with almost seamless migration process.

      After our positive experience of running .Net core workloads in containers and developing Tweek's .Net services on non-windows machines, C# had gained back some of its popularity (originally lost to Node.js), and other teams have been using it for developing microservices, k8s sidecars (like https://github.com/Soluto/airbag), cli tools, serverless functions and other projects...

      See more
      Adebayo Akinlaja
      Engineering Manager at Andela · | 30 upvotes · 3.3M views

      I picked up an idea to develop and it was no brainer I had to go with React for the frontend. I was faced with challenges when it came to what component framework to use. I had worked extensively with Material-UI but I needed something different that would offer me wider range of well customized components (I became pretty slow at styling). I brought in Evergreen after several sampling and reads online but again, after several prototype development against Evergreen—since I was using TypeScript and I had to import custom Type, it felt exhaustive. After I validated Evergreen with the designs of the idea I was developing, I also noticed I might have to do a lot of styling. I later stumbled on Material Kit, the one specifically made for React . It was promising with beautifully crafted components, most of which fits into the designs pages I had on ground.

      A major problem of Material Kit for me is it isn't written in TypeScript and there isn't any plans to support its TypeScript version. I rolled up my sleeve and started converting their components to TypeScript and if you'll ask me, I am still on it.

      In summary, I used the Create React App with TypeScript support and I am spending some time converting Material Kit to TypeScript before I start developing against it. All of these components are going to be hosted on Bit.

      If you feel I am crazy or I have gotten something wrong, I'll be willing to listen to your opinion. Also, if you want to have a share of whatever TypeScript version of Material Kit I end up coming up with, let me know.

      See more
      JavaScript logo

      JavaScript

      354.6K
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      Lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class functions
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      PROS OF JAVASCRIPT
      • 1.7K
        Can be used on frontend/backend
      • 1.5K
        It's everywhere
      • 1.2K
        Lots of great frameworks
      • 897
        Fast
      • 745
        Light weight
      • 425
        Flexible
      • 392
        You can't get a device today that doesn't run js
      • 286
        Non-blocking i/o
      • 237
        Ubiquitousness
      • 191
        Expressive
      • 55
        Extended functionality to web pages
      • 49
        Relatively easy language
      • 46
        Executed on the client side
      • 30
        Relatively fast to the end user
      • 25
        Pure Javascript
      • 21
        Functional programming
      • 15
        Async
      • 13
        Full-stack
      • 12
        Setup is easy
      • 12
        Future Language of The Web
      • 12
        Its everywhere
      • 11
        Because I love functions
      • 11
        JavaScript is the New PHP
      • 10
        Like it or not, JS is part of the web standard
      • 9
        Everyone use it
      • 9
        Expansive community
      • 9
        Easy
      • 9
        Can be used in backend, frontend and DB
      • 8
        Easy to hire developers
      • 8
        No need to use PHP
      • 8
        For the good parts
      • 8
        Can be used both as frontend and backend as well
      • 8
        Powerful
      • 8
        Most Popular Language in the World
      • 7
        Evolution of C
      • 7
        Hard not to use
      • 7
        Versitile
      • 7
        Its fun and fast
      • 7
        Supports lambdas and closures
      • 7
        Love-hate relationship
      • 7
        Photoshop has 3 JS runtimes built in
      • 7
        Nice
      • 7
        It's fun
      • 7
        Popularized Class-Less Architecture & Lambdas
      • 7
        Agile, packages simple to use
      • 6
        Can be used on frontend/backend/Mobile/create PRO Ui
      • 6
        1.6K Can be used on frontend/backend
      • 6
        Client side JS uses the visitors CPU to save Server Res
      • 6
        It let's me use Babel & Typescript
      • 6
        Easy to make something
      • 5
        Client processing
      • 5
        Everywhere
      • 5
        Scope manipulation
      • 5
        Function expressions are useful for callbacks
      • 5
        Stockholm Syndrome
      • 5
        Promise relationship
      • 5
        Clojurescript
      • 5
        What to add
      • 4
        Only Programming language on browser
      • 4
        Because it is so simple and lightweight
      • 1
        Easy to understand
      • 1
        Test
      • 1
        Test2
      • 1
        Subskill #4
      • 1
        Easy to learn
      • 1
        Hard to learn
      • 1
        Not the best
      • 0
        Hard 彤
      CONS OF JAVASCRIPT
      • 22
        A constant moving target, too much churn
      • 20
        Horribly inconsistent
      • 15
        Javascript is the New PHP
      • 9
        No ability to monitor memory utilitization
      • 8
        Shows Zero output in case of ANY error
      • 7
        Thinks strange results are better than errors
      • 6
        Can be ugly
      • 3
        No GitHub
      • 2
        Slow
      • 0
        HORRIBLE DOCUMENTS, faulty code, repo has bugs

      related JavaScript posts

      Zach Holman

      Oof. I have truly hated JavaScript for a long time. Like, for over twenty years now. Like, since the Clinton administration. It's always been a nightmare to deal with all of the aspects of that silly language.

      But wowza, things have changed. Tooling is just way, way better. I'm primarily web-oriented, and using React and Apollo together the past few years really opened my eyes to building rich apps. And I deeply apologize for using the phrase rich apps; I don't think I've ever said such Enterprisey words before.

      But yeah, things are different now. I still love Rails, and still use it for a lot of apps I build. But it's that silly rich apps phrase that's the problem. Users have way more comprehensive expectations than they did even five years ago, and the JS community does a good job at building tools and tech that tackle the problems of making heavy, complicated UI and frontend work.

      Obviously there's a lot of things happening here, so just saying "JavaScript isn't terrible" might encompass a huge amount of libraries and frameworks. But if you're like me, yeah, give things another shot- I'm somehow not hating on JavaScript anymore and... gulp... I kinda love it.

      See more
      Conor Myhrvold
      Tech Brand Mgr, Office of CTO at Uber · | 44 upvotes · 11.2M views

      How Uber developed the open source, end-to-end distributed tracing Jaeger , now a CNCF project:

      Distributed tracing is quickly becoming a must-have component in the tools that organizations use to monitor their complex, microservice-based architectures. At Uber, our open source distributed tracing system Jaeger saw large-scale internal adoption throughout 2016, integrated into hundreds of microservices and now recording thousands of traces every second.

      Here is the story of how we got here, from investigating off-the-shelf solutions like Zipkin, to why we switched from pull to push architecture, and how distributed tracing will continue to evolve:

      https://eng.uber.com/distributed-tracing/

      (GitHub Pages : https://www.jaegertracing.io/, GitHub: https://github.com/jaegertracing/jaeger)

      Bindings/Operator: Python Java Node.js Go C++ Kubernetes JavaScript OpenShift C# Apache Spark

      See more
      Git logo

      Git

      293.7K
      175.8K
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      Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
      293.7K
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      PROS OF GIT
      • 1.4K
        Distributed version control system
      • 1.1K
        Efficient branching and merging
      • 959
        Fast
      • 845
        Open source
      • 726
        Better than svn
      • 368
        Great command-line application
      • 306
        Simple
      • 291
        Free
      • 232
        Easy to use
      • 222
        Does not require server
      • 27
        Distributed
      • 22
        Small & Fast
      • 18
        Feature based workflow
      • 15
        Staging Area
      • 13
        Most wide-spread VSC
      • 11
        Role-based codelines
      • 11
        Disposable Experimentation
      • 7
        Frictionless Context Switching
      • 6
        Data Assurance
      • 5
        Efficient
      • 4
        Just awesome
      • 3
        Github integration
      • 3
        Easy branching and merging
      • 2
        Compatible
      • 2
        Flexible
      • 2
        Possible to lose history and commits
      • 1
        Rebase supported natively; reflog; access to plumbing
      • 1
        Light
      • 1
        Team Integration
      • 1
        Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
      • 1
        Easy
      • 1
        Flexible, easy, Safe, and fast
      • 1
        CLI is great, but the GUI tools are awesome
      • 1
        It's what you do
      • 0
        Phinx
      CONS OF GIT
      • 16
        Hard to learn
      • 11
        Inconsistent command line interface
      • 9
        Easy to lose uncommitted work
      • 7
        Worst documentation ever possibly made
      • 5
        Awful merge handling
      • 3
        Unexistent preventive security flows
      • 3
        Rebase hell
      • 2
        When --force is disabled, cannot rebase
      • 2
        Ironically even die-hard supporters screw up badly
      • 1
        Doesn't scale for big data

      related Git posts

      Simon Reymann
      Senior Fullstack Developer at QUANTUSflow Software GmbH · | 30 upvotes · 10M views

      Our whole DevOps stack consists of the following tools:

      • GitHub (incl. GitHub Pages/Markdown for Documentation, GettingStarted and HowTo's) for collaborative review and code management tool
      • Respectively Git as revision control system
      • SourceTree as Git GUI
      • Visual Studio Code as IDE
      • CircleCI for continuous integration (automatize development process)
      • Prettier / TSLint / ESLint as code linter
      • SonarQube as quality gate
      • Docker as container management (incl. Docker Compose for multi-container application management)
      • VirtualBox for operating system simulation tests
      • Kubernetes as cluster management for docker containers
      • Heroku for deploying in test environments
      • nginx as web server (preferably used as facade server in production environment)
      • SSLMate (using OpenSSL) for certificate management
      • Amazon EC2 (incl. Amazon S3) for deploying in stage (production-like) and production environments
      • PostgreSQL as preferred database system
      • Redis as preferred in-memory database/store (great for caching)

      The main reason we have chosen Kubernetes over Docker Swarm is related to the following artifacts:

      • Key features: Easy and flexible installation, Clear dashboard, Great scaling operations, Monitoring is an integral part, Great load balancing concepts, Monitors the condition and ensures compensation in the event of failure.
      • Applications: An application can be deployed using a combination of pods, deployments, and services (or micro-services).
      • Functionality: Kubernetes as a complex installation and setup process, but it not as limited as Docker Swarm.
      • Monitoring: It supports multiple versions of logging and monitoring when the services are deployed within the cluster (Elasticsearch/Kibana (ELK), Heapster/Grafana, Sysdig cloud integration).
      • Scalability: All-in-one framework for distributed systems.
      • Other Benefits: Kubernetes is backed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), huge community among container orchestration tools, it is an open source and modular tool that works with any OS.
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      Tymoteusz Paul
      Devops guy at X20X Development LTD · | 23 upvotes · 8.9M views

      Often enough I have to explain my way of going about setting up a CI/CD pipeline with multiple deployment platforms. Since I am a bit tired of yapping the same every single time, I've decided to write it up and share with the world this way, and send people to read it instead ;). I will explain it on "live-example" of how the Rome got built, basing that current methodology exists only of readme.md and wishes of good luck (as it usually is ;)).

      It always starts with an app, whatever it may be and reading the readmes available while Vagrant and VirtualBox is installing and updating. Following that is the first hurdle to go over - convert all the instruction/scripts into Ansible playbook(s), and only stopping when doing a clear vagrant up or vagrant reload we will have a fully working environment. As our Vagrant environment is now functional, it's time to break it! This is the moment to look for how things can be done better (too rigid/too lose versioning? Sloppy environment setup?) and replace them with the right way to do stuff, one that won't bite us in the backside. This is the point, and the best opportunity, to upcycle the existing way of doing dev environment to produce a proper, production-grade product.

      I should probably digress here for a moment and explain why. I firmly believe that the way you deploy production is the same way you should deploy develop, shy of few debugging-friendly setting. This way you avoid the discrepancy between how production work vs how development works, which almost always causes major pains in the back of the neck, and with use of proper tools should mean no more work for the developers. That's why we start with Vagrant as developer boxes should be as easy as vagrant up, but the meat of our product lies in Ansible which will do meat of the work and can be applied to almost anything: AWS, bare metal, docker, LXC, in open net, behind vpn - you name it.

      We must also give proper consideration to monitoring and logging hoovering at this point. My generic answer here is to grab Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Logstash. While for different use cases there may be better solutions, this one is well battle-tested, performs reasonably and is very easy to scale both vertically (within some limits) and horizontally. Logstash rules are easy to write and are well supported in maintenance through Ansible, which as I've mentioned earlier, are at the very core of things, and creating triggers/reports and alerts based on Elastic and Kibana is generally a breeze, including some quite complex aggregations.

      If we are happy with the state of the Ansible it's time to move on and put all those roles and playbooks to work. Namely, we need something to manage our CI/CD pipelines. For me, the choice is obvious: TeamCity. It's modern, robust and unlike most of the light-weight alternatives, it's transparent. What I mean by that is that it doesn't tell you how to do things, doesn't limit your ways to deploy, or test, or package for that matter. Instead, it provides a developer-friendly and rich playground for your pipelines. You can do most the same with Jenkins, but it has a quite dated look and feel to it, while also missing some key functionality that must be brought in via plugins (like quality REST API which comes built-in with TeamCity). It also comes with all the common-handy plugins like Slack or Apache Maven integration.

      The exact flow between CI and CD varies too greatly from one application to another to describe, so I will outline a few rules that guide me in it: 1. Make build steps as small as possible. This way when something breaks, we know exactly where, without needing to dig and root around. 2. All security credentials besides development environment must be sources from individual Vault instances. Keys to those containers should exist only on the CI/CD box and accessible by a few people (the less the better). This is pretty self-explanatory, as anything besides dev may contain sensitive data and, at times, be public-facing. Because of that appropriate security must be present. TeamCity shines in this department with excellent secrets-management. 3. Every part of the build chain shall consume and produce artifacts. If it creates nothing, it likely shouldn't be its own build. This way if any issue shows up with any environment or version, all developer has to do it is grab appropriate artifacts to reproduce the issue locally. 4. Deployment builds should be directly tied to specific Git branches/tags. This enables much easier tracking of what caused an issue, including automated identifying and tagging the author (nothing like automated regression testing!).

      Speaking of deployments, I generally try to keep it simple but also with a close eye on the wallet. Because of that, I am more than happy with AWS or another cloud provider, but also constantly peeking at the loads and do we get the value of what we are paying for. Often enough the pattern of use is not constantly erratic, but rather has a firm baseline which could be migrated away from the cloud and into bare metal boxes. That is another part where this approach strongly triumphs over the common Docker and CircleCI setup, where you are very much tied in to use cloud providers and getting out is expensive. Here to embrace bare-metal hosting all you need is a help of some container-based self-hosting software, my personal preference is with Proxmox and LXC. Following that all you must write are ansible scripts to manage hardware of Proxmox, similar way as you do for Amazon EC2 (ansible supports both greatly) and you are good to go. One does not exclude another, quite the opposite, as they can live in great synergy and cut your costs dramatically (the heavier your base load, the bigger the savings) while providing production-grade resiliency.

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