Alternatives to Back4App logo

Alternatives to Back4App

Heroku, Firebase, Parse, Backendless, and Kinvey are the most popular alternatives and competitors to Back4App.
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What is Back4App and what are its top alternatives?

Back4App is a backend as a service (BaaS) platform that allows developers to build, host, and manage applications. Key features include real-time database, cloud code functions, user authentication, push notifications, data migration, and more. However, some limitations of Back4App include limited free tier options, lack of advanced analytics, and potential scalability challenges for high-traffic applications.

  1. Firebase: Firebase is a comprehensive mobile and web application development platform with features like real-time database, authentication, hosting, and analytics. Firebase offers a generous free tier and easy integration with Google services, but some users may find it less flexible compared to Back4App.
  2. AWS Amplify: AWS Amplify is a full-stack development platform that provides tools for building scalable and secure applications. It offers features like authentication, API creation, and hosting, but users may experience a steeper learning curve compared to Back4App.
  3. Parse Platform: Parse Platform is an open-source framework for building mobile and web applications. It offers features like data storage, user authentication, and push notifications. While Parse Platform provides flexibility and control, users may need to handle hosting and maintenance themselves.
  4. Backendless: Backendless is a mobile backend as a service provider with features like real-time database, user management, push notifications, and hosting. It offers a drag-and-drop interface for easy development but may have limitations in customization compared to Back4App.
  5. Heroku: Heroku is a cloud platform that enables developers to build, deploy, and scale applications. It supports multiple programming languages and frameworks, making it versatile for various projects. However, users may face higher costs for scaling compared to Back4App.
  6. Kinvey: Kinvey is a BaaS provider that offers features like data integration, user authentication, and cloud caching. It provides enterprise-grade security but may have a complex pricing structure compared to Back4App.
  7. DigitalOcean App Platform: DigitalOcean App Platform is a platform as a service (PaaS) that simplifies application deployment and scaling. It supports various programming languages and database options, but users may require additional configuration compared to Back4App.
  8. Kuzzle: Kuzzle is an open-source backend platform with features like real-time data synchronization, authentication, and geofencing. It provides flexibility for customization but users may need to handle hosting and infrastructure management themselves.
  9. Supabase: Supabase is an open-source platform that offers features like real-time database, authentication, and serverless functions. It provides high scalability and flexibility for development, but users may need to manage hosting and maintenance themselves.
  10. DreamFactory: DreamFactory is an open-source API automation platform that simplifies backend development with features like API creation, data integration, and authentication. It offers flexibility for customization but users may require technical expertise for setup and management.

Top Alternatives to Back4App

  • Heroku
    Heroku

    Heroku is a cloud application platform – a new way of building and deploying web apps. Heroku lets app developers spend 100% of their time on their application code, not managing servers, deployment, ongoing operations, or scaling. ...

  • Firebase
    Firebase

    Firebase is a cloud service designed to power real-time, collaborative applications. Simply add the Firebase library to your application to gain access to a shared data structure; any changes you make to that data are automatically synchronized with the Firebase cloud and with other clients within milliseconds. ...

  • Parse
    Parse

    With Parse, you can add a scalable and powerful backend in minutes and launch a full-featured app in record time without ever worrying about server management. We offer push notifications, social integration, data storage, and the ability to add rich custom logic to your app’s backend with Cloud Code. ...

  • Backendless
    Backendless

    It is a development and runtime platform which simplifies and shortens mobile application development process. The platform removes the need to develop backend functionality by providing reusable server-side services via APIs. The APIs are packaged into native libraries available for all major client-side environments - Andoid, iOS, JavaScript, .NET, ActionScript and REST. The default backend logic can be modified with custom server-side code. The platform is available as an online service and a downloadable Enterprise product which can be deployed in any environment. ...

  • Kinvey
    Kinvey

    Kinvey makes it ridiculously easy for developers to setup, use and operate a cloud backend for their mobile apps. They don't have to worry about connecting to various cloud services, setting up servers for their backend, or maintaining and scaling them. ...

  • Parse-Server
    Parse-Server

    A Parse.com API compatible router package for Express. Read the announcement blog post here: http://blog.parse.com/announcements/introducing-parse-server-and-the-database-migration-tool/. Read the migration guide here: https://parse.com/docs/server/guide#migrating ...

  • JavaScript
    JavaScript

    JavaScript is most known as the scripting language for Web pages, but used in many non-browser environments as well such as node.js or Apache CouchDB. It is a prototype-based, multi-paradigm scripting language that is dynamic,and supports object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. ...

  • Git
    Git

    Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. ...

Back4App alternatives & related posts

Heroku logo

Heroku

25.3K
20.2K
3.2K
Build, deliver, monitor and scale web apps and APIs with a trail blazing developer experience.
25.3K
20.2K
+ 1
3.2K
PROS OF HEROKU
  • 703
    Easy deployment
  • 459
    Free for side projects
  • 374
    Huge time-saver
  • 348
    Simple scaling
  • 261
    Low devops skills required
  • 190
    Easy setup
  • 174
    Add-ons for almost everything
  • 153
    Beginner friendly
  • 150
    Better for startups
  • 133
    Low learning curve
  • 48
    Postgres hosting
  • 41
    Easy to add collaborators
  • 30
    Faster development
  • 24
    Awesome documentation
  • 19
    Simple rollback
  • 19
    Focus on product, not deployment
  • 15
    Natural companion for rails development
  • 15
    Easy integration
  • 12
    Great customer support
  • 8
    GitHub integration
  • 6
    Painless & well documented
  • 6
    No-ops
  • 4
    I love that they make it free to launch a side project
  • 4
    Free
  • 3
    Great UI
  • 3
    Just works
  • 2
    PostgreSQL forking and following
  • 2
    MySQL extension
  • 1
    Security
  • 1
    Able to host stuff good like Discord Bot
  • 0
    Sec
CONS OF HEROKU
  • 27
    Super expensive
  • 9
    Not a whole lot of flexibility
  • 7
    No usable MySQL option
  • 7
    Storage
  • 5
    Low performance on free tier
  • 2
    24/7 support is $1,000 per month

related Heroku posts

Russel Werner
Lead Engineer at StackShare · | 32 upvotes · 2.2M views

StackShare Feed is built entirely with React, Glamorous, and Apollo. One of our objectives with the public launch of the Feed was to enable a Server-side rendered (SSR) experience for our organic search traffic. When you visit the StackShare Feed, and you aren't logged in, you are delivered the Trending feed experience. We use an in-house Node.js rendering microservice to generate this HTML. This microservice needs to run and serve requests independent of our Rails web app. Up until recently, we had a mono-repo with our Rails and React code living happily together and all served from the same web process. In order to deploy our SSR app into a Heroku environment, we needed to split out our front-end application into a separate repo in GitHub. The driving factor in this decision was mostly due to limitations imposed by Heroku specifically with how processes can't communicate with each other. A new SSR app was created in Heroku and linked directly to the frontend repo so it stays in-sync with changes.

Related to this, we need a way to "deploy" our frontend changes to various server environments without building & releasing the entire Ruby application. We built a hybrid Amazon S3 Amazon CloudFront solution to host our Webpack bundles. A new CircleCI script builds the bundles and uploads them to S3. The final step in our rollout is to update some keys in Redis so our Rails app knows which bundles to serve. The result of these efforts were significant. Our frontend team now moves independently of our backend team, our build & release process takes only a few minutes, we are now using an edge CDN to serve JS assets, and we have pre-rendered React pages!

#StackDecisionsLaunch #SSR #Microservices #FrontEndRepoSplit

See more
Simon Reymann
Senior Fullstack Developer at QUANTUSflow Software GmbH · | 30 upvotes · 9.3M views

Our whole DevOps stack consists of the following tools:

  • GitHub (incl. GitHub Pages/Markdown for Documentation, GettingStarted and HowTo's) for collaborative review and code management tool
  • Respectively Git as revision control system
  • SourceTree as Git GUI
  • Visual Studio Code as IDE
  • CircleCI for continuous integration (automatize development process)
  • Prettier / TSLint / ESLint as code linter
  • SonarQube as quality gate
  • Docker as container management (incl. Docker Compose for multi-container application management)
  • VirtualBox for operating system simulation tests
  • Kubernetes as cluster management for docker containers
  • Heroku for deploying in test environments
  • nginx as web server (preferably used as facade server in production environment)
  • SSLMate (using OpenSSL) for certificate management
  • Amazon EC2 (incl. Amazon S3) for deploying in stage (production-like) and production environments
  • PostgreSQL as preferred database system
  • Redis as preferred in-memory database/store (great for caching)

The main reason we have chosen Kubernetes over Docker Swarm is related to the following artifacts:

  • Key features: Easy and flexible installation, Clear dashboard, Great scaling operations, Monitoring is an integral part, Great load balancing concepts, Monitors the condition and ensures compensation in the event of failure.
  • Applications: An application can be deployed using a combination of pods, deployments, and services (or micro-services).
  • Functionality: Kubernetes as a complex installation and setup process, but it not as limited as Docker Swarm.
  • Monitoring: It supports multiple versions of logging and monitoring when the services are deployed within the cluster (Elasticsearch/Kibana (ELK), Heapster/Grafana, Sysdig cloud integration).
  • Scalability: All-in-one framework for distributed systems.
  • Other Benefits: Kubernetes is backed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), huge community among container orchestration tools, it is an open source and modular tool that works with any OS.
See more
Firebase logo

Firebase

40.2K
34.5K
2K
The Realtime App Platform
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34.5K
+ 1
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PROS OF FIREBASE
  • 371
    Realtime backend made easy
  • 270
    Fast and responsive
  • 242
    Easy setup
  • 215
    Real-time
  • 191
    JSON
  • 134
    Free
  • 128
    Backed by google
  • 83
    Angular adaptor
  • 68
    Reliable
  • 36
    Great customer support
  • 32
    Great documentation
  • 25
    Real-time synchronization
  • 21
    Mobile friendly
  • 18
    Rapid prototyping
  • 14
    Great security
  • 12
    Automatic scaling
  • 11
    Freakingly awesome
  • 8
    Chat
  • 8
    Angularfire is an amazing addition!
  • 8
    Super fast development
  • 6
    Built in user auth/oauth
  • 6
    Firebase hosting
  • 6
    Ios adaptor
  • 6
    Awesome next-gen backend
  • 4
    Speed of light
  • 4
    Very easy to use
  • 3
    Great
  • 3
    It's made development super fast
  • 3
    Brilliant for startups
  • 2
    Free hosting
  • 2
    Cloud functions
  • 2
    JS Offline and Sync suport
  • 2
    Low battery consumption
  • 2
    .net
  • 2
    The concurrent updates create a great experience
  • 2
    Push notification
  • 2
    I can quickly create static web apps with no backend
  • 2
    Great all-round functionality
  • 2
    Free authentication solution
  • 1
    Easy Reactjs integration
  • 1
    Google's support
  • 1
    Free SSL
  • 1
    CDN & cache out of the box
  • 1
    Easy to use
  • 1
    Large
  • 1
    Faster workflow
  • 1
    Serverless
  • 1
    Good Free Limits
  • 1
    Simple and easy
CONS OF FIREBASE
  • 31
    Can become expensive
  • 16
    No open source, you depend on external company
  • 15
    Scalability is not infinite
  • 9
    Not Flexible Enough
  • 7
    Cant filter queries
  • 3
    Very unstable server
  • 3
    No Relational Data
  • 2
    Too many errors
  • 2
    No offline sync

related Firebase posts

Johnny Bell

I was building a personal project that I needed to store items in a real time database. I am more comfortable with my Frontend skills than my backend so I didn't want to spend time building out anything in Ruby or Go.

I stumbled on Firebase by #Google, and it was really all I needed. It had realtime data, an area for storing file uploads and best of all for the amount of data I needed it was free!

I built out my application using tools I was familiar with, React for the framework, Redux.js to manage my state across components, and styled-components for the styling.

Now as this was a project I was just working on in my free time for fun I didn't really want to pay for hosting. I did some research and I found Netlify. I had actually seen them at #ReactRally the year before and deployed a Gatsby site to Netlify already.

Netlify was very easy to setup and link to my GitHub account you select a repo and pretty much with very little configuration you have a live site that will deploy every time you push to master.

With the selection of these tools I was able to build out my application, connect it to a realtime database, and deploy to a live environment all with $0 spent.

If you're looking to build out a small app I suggest giving these tools a go as you can get your idea out into the real world for absolutely no cost.

See more
Collins Ogbuzuru
Front-end dev at Evolve credit · | 16 upvotes · 12.9K views

Your tech stack is solid for building a real-time messaging project.

React and React Native are excellent choices for the frontend, especially if you want to have both web and mobile versions of your application share code.

ExpressJS is an unopinionated framework that affords you the flexibility to use it's features at your term, which is a good start. However, I would recommend you explore Sails.js as well. Sails.js is built on top of Express.js and it provides additional features out of the box, especially the Websocket integration that your project requires.

Don't forget to set up Graphql codegen, this would improve your dev experience (Add Typescript, if you can too).

I don't know much about databases but you might want to consider using NO-SQL. I used Firebase real-time db and aws dynamo db on a few of my personal projects and I love they're easy to work with and offer more flexibility for a chat application.

See more
Parse logo

Parse

498
480
601
The complete mobile app platform
498
480
+ 1
601
PROS OF PARSE
  • 118
    Easy setup
  • 78
    Free hosting
  • 62
    Well-documented
  • 52
    Cheap
  • 47
    Use push notifications in 3 lines of code
  • 41
    Fast
  • 39
    Cloud code
  • 32
    Good for prototypes
  • 31
    Cloud modules
  • 27
    Backed by facebook
  • 7
    Parse Push
  • 7
    Cross Platform
  • 6
    Parse Analytics
  • 6
    Multiplatform
  • 6
    Parse Core
  • 5
    Quick chat and profile capabilities
  • 5
    Free Tier
  • 5
    Cloud Based
  • 4
    Nice security concept
  • 4
    Free
  • 3
    About to Die
  • 3
    Local Datastore
  • 3
    Backend as a service
  • 3
    Backbone Models
  • 3
    Geopoints
  • 2
    Anonymous Users
  • 2
    Easy to use
CONS OF PARSE
    Be the first to leave a con

    related Parse posts

    Backendless logo

    Backendless

    15
    74
    0
    A mobile Backend as a Service (mBaaS) platform
    15
    74
    + 1
    0
    PROS OF BACKENDLESS
      Be the first to leave a pro
      CONS OF BACKENDLESS
        Be the first to leave a con

        related Backendless posts

        Kinvey logo

        Kinvey

        20
        42
        13
        Cloud Backend as a Service for any app.
        20
        42
        + 1
        13
        PROS OF KINVEY
        • 5
          Easy setup
        • 2
          Excellent documentation
        • 2
          Great free tier for testing prototypes
        • 2
          MongoDB
        • 1
          Will be discontinued sometime in 2023
        • 1
          Great customer support
        CONS OF KINVEY
        • 1
          Base plan starts at $2,500 / year

        related Kinvey posts

        Parse-Server logo

        Parse-Server

        191
        238
        32
        Parse-compatible API server module for Node/Express
        191
        238
        + 1
        32
        PROS OF PARSE-SERVER
        • 13
          Open Source
        • 7
          Well documented
        • 4
          Easy setup, easy api, Fast,more platforms,realtime
        • 3
          No vendor lock-in
        • 2
          JSON
        • 2
          Backed by People
        • 1
          Friendly contributor community
        CONS OF PARSE-SERVER
        • 1
          No guarantee (comes as is)

        related Parse-Server posts

        JavaScript logo

        JavaScript

        351.3K
        267.5K
        8.1K
        Lightweight, interpreted, object-oriented language with first-class functions
        351.3K
        267.5K
        + 1
        8.1K
        PROS OF JAVASCRIPT
        • 1.7K
          Can be used on frontend/backend
        • 1.5K
          It's everywhere
        • 1.2K
          Lots of great frameworks
        • 897
          Fast
        • 745
          Light weight
        • 425
          Flexible
        • 392
          You can't get a device today that doesn't run js
        • 286
          Non-blocking i/o
        • 237
          Ubiquitousness
        • 191
          Expressive
        • 55
          Extended functionality to web pages
        • 49
          Relatively easy language
        • 46
          Executed on the client side
        • 30
          Relatively fast to the end user
        • 25
          Pure Javascript
        • 21
          Functional programming
        • 15
          Async
        • 13
          Full-stack
        • 12
          Setup is easy
        • 12
          Future Language of The Web
        • 12
          Its everywhere
        • 11
          Because I love functions
        • 11
          JavaScript is the New PHP
        • 10
          Like it or not, JS is part of the web standard
        • 9
          Expansive community
        • 9
          Everyone use it
        • 9
          Can be used in backend, frontend and DB
        • 9
          Easy
        • 8
          Most Popular Language in the World
        • 8
          Powerful
        • 8
          Can be used both as frontend and backend as well
        • 8
          For the good parts
        • 8
          No need to use PHP
        • 8
          Easy to hire developers
        • 7
          Agile, packages simple to use
        • 7
          Love-hate relationship
        • 7
          Photoshop has 3 JS runtimes built in
        • 7
          Evolution of C
        • 7
          It's fun
        • 7
          Hard not to use
        • 7
          Versitile
        • 7
          Its fun and fast
        • 7
          Nice
        • 7
          Popularized Class-Less Architecture & Lambdas
        • 7
          Supports lambdas and closures
        • 6
          It let's me use Babel & Typescript
        • 6
          Can be used on frontend/backend/Mobile/create PRO Ui
        • 6
          1.6K Can be used on frontend/backend
        • 6
          Client side JS uses the visitors CPU to save Server Res
        • 6
          Easy to make something
        • 5
          Clojurescript
        • 5
          Promise relationship
        • 5
          Stockholm Syndrome
        • 5
          Function expressions are useful for callbacks
        • 5
          Scope manipulation
        • 5
          Everywhere
        • 5
          Client processing
        • 5
          What to add
        • 4
          Because it is so simple and lightweight
        • 4
          Only Programming language on browser
        • 1
          Test
        • 1
          Hard to learn
        • 1
          Test2
        • 1
          Not the best
        • 1
          Easy to understand
        • 1
          Subskill #4
        • 1
          Easy to learn
        • 0
          Hard 彤
        CONS OF JAVASCRIPT
        • 22
          A constant moving target, too much churn
        • 20
          Horribly inconsistent
        • 15
          Javascript is the New PHP
        • 9
          No ability to monitor memory utilitization
        • 8
          Shows Zero output in case of ANY error
        • 7
          Thinks strange results are better than errors
        • 6
          Can be ugly
        • 3
          No GitHub
        • 2
          Slow

        related JavaScript posts

        Zach Holman

        Oof. I have truly hated JavaScript for a long time. Like, for over twenty years now. Like, since the Clinton administration. It's always been a nightmare to deal with all of the aspects of that silly language.

        But wowza, things have changed. Tooling is just way, way better. I'm primarily web-oriented, and using React and Apollo together the past few years really opened my eyes to building rich apps. And I deeply apologize for using the phrase rich apps; I don't think I've ever said such Enterprisey words before.

        But yeah, things are different now. I still love Rails, and still use it for a lot of apps I build. But it's that silly rich apps phrase that's the problem. Users have way more comprehensive expectations than they did even five years ago, and the JS community does a good job at building tools and tech that tackle the problems of making heavy, complicated UI and frontend work.

        Obviously there's a lot of things happening here, so just saying "JavaScript isn't terrible" might encompass a huge amount of libraries and frameworks. But if you're like me, yeah, give things another shot- I'm somehow not hating on JavaScript anymore and... gulp... I kinda love it.

        See more
        Conor Myhrvold
        Tech Brand Mgr, Office of CTO at Uber · | 44 upvotes · 10.1M views

        How Uber developed the open source, end-to-end distributed tracing Jaeger , now a CNCF project:

        Distributed tracing is quickly becoming a must-have component in the tools that organizations use to monitor their complex, microservice-based architectures. At Uber, our open source distributed tracing system Jaeger saw large-scale internal adoption throughout 2016, integrated into hundreds of microservices and now recording thousands of traces every second.

        Here is the story of how we got here, from investigating off-the-shelf solutions like Zipkin, to why we switched from pull to push architecture, and how distributed tracing will continue to evolve:

        https://eng.uber.com/distributed-tracing/

        (GitHub Pages : https://www.jaegertracing.io/, GitHub: https://github.com/jaegertracing/jaeger)

        Bindings/Operator: Python Java Node.js Go C++ Kubernetes JavaScript OpenShift C# Apache Spark

        See more
        Git logo

        Git

        290.2K
        174.4K
        6.6K
        Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
        290.2K
        174.4K
        + 1
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        PROS OF GIT
        • 1.4K
          Distributed version control system
        • 1.1K
          Efficient branching and merging
        • 959
          Fast
        • 845
          Open source
        • 726
          Better than svn
        • 368
          Great command-line application
        • 306
          Simple
        • 291
          Free
        • 232
          Easy to use
        • 222
          Does not require server
        • 27
          Distributed
        • 22
          Small & Fast
        • 18
          Feature based workflow
        • 15
          Staging Area
        • 13
          Most wide-spread VSC
        • 11
          Role-based codelines
        • 11
          Disposable Experimentation
        • 7
          Frictionless Context Switching
        • 6
          Data Assurance
        • 5
          Efficient
        • 4
          Just awesome
        • 3
          Github integration
        • 3
          Easy branching and merging
        • 2
          Compatible
        • 2
          Flexible
        • 2
          Possible to lose history and commits
        • 1
          Rebase supported natively; reflog; access to plumbing
        • 1
          Light
        • 1
          Team Integration
        • 1
          Fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
        • 1
          Easy
        • 1
          Flexible, easy, Safe, and fast
        • 1
          CLI is great, but the GUI tools are awesome
        • 1
          It's what you do
        • 0
          Phinx
        CONS OF GIT
        • 16
          Hard to learn
        • 11
          Inconsistent command line interface
        • 9
          Easy to lose uncommitted work
        • 7
          Worst documentation ever possibly made
        • 5
          Awful merge handling
        • 3
          Unexistent preventive security flows
        • 3
          Rebase hell
        • 2
          When --force is disabled, cannot rebase
        • 2
          Ironically even die-hard supporters screw up badly
        • 1
          Doesn't scale for big data

        related Git posts

        Simon Reymann
        Senior Fullstack Developer at QUANTUSflow Software GmbH · | 30 upvotes · 9.3M views

        Our whole DevOps stack consists of the following tools:

        • GitHub (incl. GitHub Pages/Markdown for Documentation, GettingStarted and HowTo's) for collaborative review and code management tool
        • Respectively Git as revision control system
        • SourceTree as Git GUI
        • Visual Studio Code as IDE
        • CircleCI for continuous integration (automatize development process)
        • Prettier / TSLint / ESLint as code linter
        • SonarQube as quality gate
        • Docker as container management (incl. Docker Compose for multi-container application management)
        • VirtualBox for operating system simulation tests
        • Kubernetes as cluster management for docker containers
        • Heroku for deploying in test environments
        • nginx as web server (preferably used as facade server in production environment)
        • SSLMate (using OpenSSL) for certificate management
        • Amazon EC2 (incl. Amazon S3) for deploying in stage (production-like) and production environments
        • PostgreSQL as preferred database system
        • Redis as preferred in-memory database/store (great for caching)

        The main reason we have chosen Kubernetes over Docker Swarm is related to the following artifacts:

        • Key features: Easy and flexible installation, Clear dashboard, Great scaling operations, Monitoring is an integral part, Great load balancing concepts, Monitors the condition and ensures compensation in the event of failure.
        • Applications: An application can be deployed using a combination of pods, deployments, and services (or micro-services).
        • Functionality: Kubernetes as a complex installation and setup process, but it not as limited as Docker Swarm.
        • Monitoring: It supports multiple versions of logging and monitoring when the services are deployed within the cluster (Elasticsearch/Kibana (ELK), Heapster/Grafana, Sysdig cloud integration).
        • Scalability: All-in-one framework for distributed systems.
        • Other Benefits: Kubernetes is backed by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), huge community among container orchestration tools, it is an open source and modular tool that works with any OS.
        See more
        Tymoteusz Paul
        Devops guy at X20X Development LTD · | 23 upvotes · 8.3M views

        Often enough I have to explain my way of going about setting up a CI/CD pipeline with multiple deployment platforms. Since I am a bit tired of yapping the same every single time, I've decided to write it up and share with the world this way, and send people to read it instead ;). I will explain it on "live-example" of how the Rome got built, basing that current methodology exists only of readme.md and wishes of good luck (as it usually is ;)).

        It always starts with an app, whatever it may be and reading the readmes available while Vagrant and VirtualBox is installing and updating. Following that is the first hurdle to go over - convert all the instruction/scripts into Ansible playbook(s), and only stopping when doing a clear vagrant up or vagrant reload we will have a fully working environment. As our Vagrant environment is now functional, it's time to break it! This is the moment to look for how things can be done better (too rigid/too lose versioning? Sloppy environment setup?) and replace them with the right way to do stuff, one that won't bite us in the backside. This is the point, and the best opportunity, to upcycle the existing way of doing dev environment to produce a proper, production-grade product.

        I should probably digress here for a moment and explain why. I firmly believe that the way you deploy production is the same way you should deploy develop, shy of few debugging-friendly setting. This way you avoid the discrepancy between how production work vs how development works, which almost always causes major pains in the back of the neck, and with use of proper tools should mean no more work for the developers. That's why we start with Vagrant as developer boxes should be as easy as vagrant up, but the meat of our product lies in Ansible which will do meat of the work and can be applied to almost anything: AWS, bare metal, docker, LXC, in open net, behind vpn - you name it.

        We must also give proper consideration to monitoring and logging hoovering at this point. My generic answer here is to grab Elasticsearch, Kibana, and Logstash. While for different use cases there may be better solutions, this one is well battle-tested, performs reasonably and is very easy to scale both vertically (within some limits) and horizontally. Logstash rules are easy to write and are well supported in maintenance through Ansible, which as I've mentioned earlier, are at the very core of things, and creating triggers/reports and alerts based on Elastic and Kibana is generally a breeze, including some quite complex aggregations.

        If we are happy with the state of the Ansible it's time to move on and put all those roles and playbooks to work. Namely, we need something to manage our CI/CD pipelines. For me, the choice is obvious: TeamCity. It's modern, robust and unlike most of the light-weight alternatives, it's transparent. What I mean by that is that it doesn't tell you how to do things, doesn't limit your ways to deploy, or test, or package for that matter. Instead, it provides a developer-friendly and rich playground for your pipelines. You can do most the same with Jenkins, but it has a quite dated look and feel to it, while also missing some key functionality that must be brought in via plugins (like quality REST API which comes built-in with TeamCity). It also comes with all the common-handy plugins like Slack or Apache Maven integration.

        The exact flow between CI and CD varies too greatly from one application to another to describe, so I will outline a few rules that guide me in it: 1. Make build steps as small as possible. This way when something breaks, we know exactly where, without needing to dig and root around. 2. All security credentials besides development environment must be sources from individual Vault instances. Keys to those containers should exist only on the CI/CD box and accessible by a few people (the less the better). This is pretty self-explanatory, as anything besides dev may contain sensitive data and, at times, be public-facing. Because of that appropriate security must be present. TeamCity shines in this department with excellent secrets-management. 3. Every part of the build chain shall consume and produce artifacts. If it creates nothing, it likely shouldn't be its own build. This way if any issue shows up with any environment or version, all developer has to do it is grab appropriate artifacts to reproduce the issue locally. 4. Deployment builds should be directly tied to specific Git branches/tags. This enables much easier tracking of what caused an issue, including automated identifying and tagging the author (nothing like automated regression testing!).

        Speaking of deployments, I generally try to keep it simple but also with a close eye on the wallet. Because of that, I am more than happy with AWS or another cloud provider, but also constantly peeking at the loads and do we get the value of what we are paying for. Often enough the pattern of use is not constantly erratic, but rather has a firm baseline which could be migrated away from the cloud and into bare metal boxes. That is another part where this approach strongly triumphs over the common Docker and CircleCI setup, where you are very much tied in to use cloud providers and getting out is expensive. Here to embrace bare-metal hosting all you need is a help of some container-based self-hosting software, my personal preference is with Proxmox and LXC. Following that all you must write are ansible scripts to manage hardware of Proxmox, similar way as you do for Amazon EC2 (ansible supports both greatly) and you are good to go. One does not exclude another, quite the opposite, as they can live in great synergy and cut your costs dramatically (the heavier your base load, the bigger the savings) while providing production-grade resiliency.

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