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Java vs Python: What are the differences?
Developers describe Java as "A concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, language specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible". Java is a programming language and computing platform first released by Sun Microsystems in 1995. There are lots of applications and websites that will not work unless you have Java installed, and more are created every day. Java is fast, secure, and reliable. From laptops to datacenters, game consoles to scientific supercomputers, cell phones to the Internet, Java is everywhere!. On the other hand, Python is detailed as "A clear and powerful object-oriented programming language, comparable to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, or Java". Python is a general purpose programming language created by Guido Van Rossum. Python is most praised for its elegant syntax and readable code, if you are just beginning your programming career python suits you best.
Java and Python can be categorized as "Languages" tools.
"Great libraries", "Widely used" and "Excellent tooling" are the key factors why developers consider Java; whereas "Great libraries", "Readable code" and "Beautiful code" are the primary reasons why Python is favored.
Python is an open source tool with 25.3K GitHub stars and 10.5K GitHub forks. Here's a link to Python's open source repository on GitHub.
According to the StackShare community, Python has a broader approval, being mentioned in 2826 company stacks & 3632 developers stacks; compared to Java, which is listed in 2399 company stacks and 2723 developer stacks.
I'm a developer for over 9 years, and most of this time I've been working with C# and it is paying my bills until nowadays. But I'm seeking to learn other languages and expand the possibilities for the next years.
Now the question... I know Ruby is far from dead but is it still worth investing time in learning it? Or would be better to take Python, Golang, or even Rust? Or maybe another language.
Thanks in advance.
Hi Caue, I don't think any language is dead in 2022, and we still see a lot of Cobol and Fortran out there, so Ruby is not going to die for sure. However, based on the market, you'll be better off learning Goland and Python. For example, for data science, machine learning, and similar areas, Python is the default language while backend API, services, and other general purpose Goland is becoming the preferred.
I hope this helps.
I feel most productive using go. It has all the features I need and doesn't throw road blocks in your way as you learn. Rust is the most difficult to learn as borrow checking and other features can puzzle a newcomer for days. Python is a logical next step as it has a huge following, many great libraries, and one can find a gig using python in a heartbeat. Ruby isn't awful, it's just not that popular as the others.
Another reason to use python is that it is not compiled. You can muck around in the interpreter until you figure things out. OTOH, that makes it less performant. You really need to think about your use cases, your interest in lower-lever versus high-level coding, and so on.
Then, I have learned and worked with Golang. I use it where I think I would need a slightly better performance than in Python. Plus, relatively small and self-contained executable is a great thing to have. If you plan to write distributed systems, extend Kubernetes or do similar things I think Golang is a great choice. It's also simple and straightforward, especially when you want to do effective multithreading. Although I don't like that Golang is more low-level than Python. Sometimes I feel like I need to implement myself too much things.
Now, about Rust. It's my second try to learn Rust. First time I decided to learn Golang as I understood it in 30mins or so while I was struggling to compile/do anything meaningful there for quite a bit. So I personally don't think Rust is super easy. I have got back to learning Rust as it's going to fill one of gaps in my problem solving toolkit - let me write low-level system programs (e.g. linux kernel modules). I don't want to learn "obsolete" C/C++ (my reasons are similar to why Google has recently introduced Carbon - a replacement for C/C++ codebases). If you are not going to tight your life with system-like programming, Rust may be an overkill for you.
Finally, I have never coded in Ruby, so are not going to comment it.
I'm almost same position as you. 8 years same company with c#. I tried both Python and Golang. I like working with Golang. Check this litte go doc. After reading this document and following its examples, I decided to work with "go" https://www.openmymind.net/assets/go/go.pdf
Since you are very experienced, picking up a language will not take you more than a week. Rust is a very new language. Many startups are still experimenting with it. Golang is very popular nowadays. You can see a lot of golang jobs in the market. The best part is, compiled code is single binary and has a minimal footprint. Rails is a compelling framework; believe me, many websites like Shopify, GitHub, GitLab, etc., are powered by the rails framework. You can also leverage the power of metaprogramming in Ruby. Python is memory and CPU intensive. It is not as performant as the other three. If you want to go into Data Science, Python is the language. Good luck, buddy. Feel free to connect with me: https://twitter.com/avirajkhare00
Because it opens endless possibilities you can do anything and everything you want to. from ai to app development to web development.
Either Python or Golang, for all the enlightened reasons already mentionned in all advices/comments :) Enjoy!
it is highly recommended to take a look at that survey
I am planning to implement a ETL test system for checking data quality and business use cases. I am confused on what stack to use. Any advice on the below will be very helpful.
- Any existing frameworks and its source code for help
- Any other stack apart from the mentioned stack (that might be suitable)
- Any ideas for features are welcomed.
- The usage of multiple BE stacks.
I will use Elixir for personal projects. It's productive, reliable, secure, simple, etc. But when performance is critical, I need job opportunities, when I work with mutability, which do I pick? I need advice on which "bureaucratic, mainstream" programming language to pick when wanting performance and jobs. Elixir is often "slow", and it hasn't boomed yet the way Golang and Rust have, so which?
Well for those performant tasks maybe you can use Rust nifs for elixir. Elixir enables to write fault-tolerant, scalable code for concurrent systems, and as such, it is perfect for messaging systems and web applications that might need to handle a lot of users efficiently. But if you need speed you can plug in Rust or write a microservice using Goland/Rust.
Hello Folks, my first time here, and for requesting advice. I am trying to create some automation from my cloud stack on AWS to something more cloud native. I have containerised the services, however, I am stuck at DB, my Data warehouse, and messaging. Would love some recommendations on how can I automate this for some future work too.
I recommend cloud-init for base setup of machines and configuring them.. Its simple (YAML file) and is industry standard. Even works on bare metal as well as cloud.
Hey everyone, I have a matrix chart drawn in HTML5/CSS 3 dominantly using CSS grid. I would like to add interactive features and am unsure about the best tool. My programming knowledge is limited to 2 semesters of Java in college, so I'd have to learn the language as I go. I am open to anything, but the selected languages would be useful in future projects.
Here are the features I am attempting to add to the site linked as my blog:
Assign over 120 attributes each to over 400 elements (probably in a DB)
Procedurally position elements in a matrix chart based on user-inputted filters (filtering and searching)
Procedurally position matrix elements based on attributes weighted by user-input
Change style of elements based on user input (highlighting)
Allow saving matrix chart states to be revisited or shared
Provide a user-friendly interface for users to submit the above input
Build several columns or matrices that are separate but related and seamless to the viewer
I know Java but it need 4x time more code and code is not clear (too much forced use of @decorators) - too complex and takes more memory :)
Remember if you code in Python it is easy to code in Java but if you code in Java you must understand that Python is much more flexible and powerful - also easier to learn.
- Should I forget Python and move on?
- What's the point of me learning Python if it's not useful for web development?
You should not ditch or forget Python because of what you hear or because of one particular project. It's probably going to stay relevant and useful for the coming 20 years. If you're a programmer, you should however be prepared to use several tools, and programming languages are just part of the toolbox (like HTML or CSS, but also your IDE, powershell, linux commands, etc.) It's not for nothing that this site is called "stackshare".
Python is great for data science but it's not very performant and eats up loads of resources. I recommend that you give Go a go. It's easy to learn and very fast!
Python is definitely not useless, It has a ton of usecases, with a huge community behind it, but not that performant and consumes lots of resources, I don't think you should abandon it, and PWA is kind a in its early stage, so I doubt that there will be any language better than js for developing it any time soon, so I guess there are no alternatives, but I guess you will like js/ts if you spend a little more time playing with it, and the same goes for wasm it is also in its early stage, and i guess web assembly and rust will be used a lot for that, and lets say you have built a frontend web app , now with the help of python + django or flask you can write server code, and learn a little bit about databases, then bravo you are a full stack dev.
Hi, I am working as a web developer (PHP, Laravel, AngularJS, and MySQL) with more than 8 years of experience and looking for a tech stack that pays better. I have a little bit of knowledge of Core Java. For better opportunities, Should I learn Java, Spring Boot or Python. Or should I learn Drupal, WordPress or Magento? Any guidance would be really appreciated! Thanks.
Hard to answer it depend on market. Python + Flask + Jinja2 is better that SpringBoot. Java can be paid better now but I think that future is Python. I code very good in PHP, Java, Python - prefer Python for less code and more effects. PHP is little ugly and limited to web.
What do you think about Node JS with React? I feel like this stack is fairly paid more than PHP.
I am also a Laravel developer, in process of transitioning towards Node js.
If you wanna personally connect with me, hit me up at @izshreyansh on twitter.
Actually, I'll add, C++ and C# as well.
Well, I'm into Computer Science since 1996, so I understand a bit of everything plus a lot of different OSs, I study 10 hours per day every day. However back in the 90s we didn't have books or universities about programming, all were passed through if you knew somebody in that profession. Which I did and in that time, he showed me .NET and MySQL, and that offered a lot of jobs also Java. Today you have a lot of options but I'm already discarding new languages as I believe they will jot succeed.
My always dream was to create game, and software. I don't understand all programming concepts and I'm studying all languages at the same time, so I'm heavy loaded. But that keeps me more aware.
I made a choice: use Python for everything but if you want performance, apps, security, compatibility, Multiplatform. What should I choose? The real question here is: which language should I go 100% and that language will teach me all I need about programming BUT without getting lost in that language forever (I discard any Assembly possibility) and one that has full documentation, support and libraries.
In my experience: I found a lot of info for python and java. But hardly I have ever found anything for C lang, C++ and, what about C# (it's only for Windows, is it easy, I saw a lot of documentation). Thanks!!
Python can be linked with C++ both language are similar in many places (using same libraries or concepts to build libraries) - except memory and static types. C++ is more assembler and have different syntax (need 3x-4x coding more).
If you do engineering it is perfect stack - Java is to slow in coding (4x more code) and little faster than Python - whatever it is hard to mix Java/C++ what is easy Python/C++.
In the most program you do not need super performance but if you need C++ is the best and have rich Object Language much richer than Java and more poor than Python. Python is true object language - everything is object.
Whatever sometimes more important is framework than language for specific use.
I would go with Python, it is fast to code, readable and very powerful without giving you too much to think about (e.g. memory management). If you're looking for speed, Cython is a fairly good way to get there, since Python is a C-based language it can be compiled to C using Cython and will get you a very significant boost in speed! You can also make use of C libraries if you prefer. The only downside to Cython over Python is that it is compiled and not interpreted, which can make debugging a pain (but you might find yourself doing most of the debugging in Python before switching to Cython). C languages are a bit of a pain to read up on (API, libraries etc.), but Stack Overflow has you covered in most cases!
All programming languages are cross platform except Java, but even that's not that bad. Performance: C(++), Go, Rust, Java, Ada, OCaml, Haskell, C# Apps: JS, TS, ReScript, Go, C(++), Java, Haskell, C#, Dart Security: Java, Go, Rust, COBOL, C(++), C# Compatibility: Java(due to it's VM), C(++), Go, C# Libraries: Java, Go, C(++), C# Documentation: Java, C(++) (since they are mature) What do you mean without getting lost in the language? I'd not advocate for C(or C++), considering it's hard to understand the memory, and it's for those into programming theory. You are looking for all you need. Go for Java, it has a library for everything, it has a reasonable learning curve, and pretty much you are going to encounter it everywhere- it's like a programming black hole you can't escape.
I want to create a mobile-first e-commerce platform app. I think Dart and Flutter is a way for me to build cross-platform apps from a single codebase but I might be wrong so what do you guys think?
I also don't know what to do about the back-end. I mean managing the database of products and users. handing orders and invoices. I think Firebase can be an answer to my problems but how far I can go with firebase and its user authentication and database tools? Just firebase is enough for all my back-end needs?
What suits my needs, a relational database or a non-relational database?
Do I need to learn another programming language for handling back-end, like Python or Go?
I would appreciate your opinion. Thanks
Hi, I have 3 years with Flutter and I can see that Flutter with Firebase will be a good choice for you, Just start with Firebase, it's a little bit expensive when you have a lot of users, but there you will have some money to build your own API using any other language, and here I recommend Elixir or Python.
And about what you need to learn: - Dart - Flutter - State management for Flutter - Firebase
Then you can publish your app finally, and I wish you a happy published app :)
Hello, I am still a student and would like to ask a question. Currently, I am developing in mobile development with Flutter in the frontend and Python in the backend part. Right now I have to make a choice about developing a mobile app or developing a backend to progress more professionally. My questions are as follows:
1) If I prefer the mobile application area, will I only work with the Ui/Ux developer with the front-end and code the designs in Swift Kotlin languages, am I responsible for the back-end software?
2) I have a product that generates new ideas so I like to control the development and work there because the backend is the brain, but are they independent from each other in the backend mobile application? Is the mobile app developer responsible for the backend software?
3) I don't like graphic design because I don't like it if it's not perfect and I get stressed. Am I responsible for the graphic design in the mobile app?
4) Is a mobile app developer also a backend developer?
I know these are very simple questions, but they are very important to me. Thanks for your answers.
Hi Hüseyin! 1-2) In my experience If you are a Mobile Applications Developer you will have the following responsabilities: - Develop (not designing) both functionality and screens of the app you are working - Consume (not develop) third party or self company owned APIs or Backend services - Distribution tasks. - Mantainance tasks. Now, there will always be companies wishing you know the whole thing (ui/ux, backend, frontend, mobile, cd/ci, data science, etc.). And of course it will be helpful for you to know a little bit of the stuff around mobile development, but it's not very common since it's not part of the responsabilities of a mobile app dev.
3) No, you are not responsable for the designs of your application, that's why companies have Product designers, ux designers, ui designers for preparing the screens, logos, color palettes, etc for products. As a developer your job is to see and examine the designs and take them from Figma, InVision, Zeplin, etc to the Code editor.
4) This is the thing, if you are working as a Mobile Developer you might know about Mobile development, not backend, not frontend, not ui ux. BUT if you know a little about backend that might be helpful although backend should not be your responsability.
I hope this makes sense to you. Cheers!
As a mobile developer, I'm usually a member of a larger team and it's usually another person's responsibility to develop the backend/API, and another person's to do the UX/design. Very very few teams use cross-platform tools like Flutter or React Native, because tools like those tend to make mediocre apps that scale poorly and are impossible to debug, so make sure to get familiar with Swift/iOS or Kotlin/Android (or both).
Hi! I think most of your questions led to these answers:
Mobile software developers don't responsible for the back-end part, or even graphic design. Of course, the back-end part should be done by a back-end developer. The graphic design, I'd say that if you work on a start-up, you might be the one who does since there isn't much manpower there, but in the larger company, they would have a designer especially in UI/UX. You'll have a mockup for the application that you need to follow. As a developer, you're expected to code, not design.
I've said that the responsibility isn't yours, but of course, you'll have an advantage over others if you know UI/UX, or back-end as well. That would help you a lot to be a good mobile developer.
We're moving from Java to Kotlin with our Microservice Stack (Spring Boot) because it is excellently supported by framework and tools and the learning curve is not very steep Kotlin is way more straightforward and convenient to use while providing less boilerplate and more strictness, which finally leads to better code, which is more readable, maintainable and less error-prone. We especially like Kotlin's (functional) data structures, which are, e.g. compared to Scala, easier to understand and don't require deep knowledge in functional programming.
We have chosen a mix of Java and Python for building an open source data observability tool. The application can work as a standalone command line tool with a rich shell interface (using even command completion). The Java ecosystem is more mature when it comes to connectivity to various databases using JDBC. Also picocli with jline3 let us make a very dynamic shell interface with command completion. The definitions of data quality checks that should be executed are defined in YAML files, backed by a YAML (in fact JSON) schema files. Our YAML files can be edited in Visual Studio Code (and other code editors) with support of the code completion. It is possible because all the data model is defined as pure Java classes for which we are generating a YAML/JSON schema. There is still place for Python because it is very popular in the database space. We are simply starting a Python interpreter in the background (from a Java code). Python is used to evaluate validation rules (defined as Python functions) and render SQL queries from Jinja2 templates.
A developer and project manager from our team X says the following about our use of Rails at i22:
"We use Rails to build stable and flexible backend systems. Rails is extremely good for managing data structures and quickly setting up new systems. It is the perfect base for most use cases."
I asked the same Team X member why the team prefers to work with Ruby on Rails, rather than Python and Django:
"Because Python is a scripting language and from my point of view not suitable for building stable web services. Python is for me rather good for scripts and fast small tools. Not for stable business applications. And if I want it fast I prefer Go."
As we're developing a critical piece of software, type safety is very important to minimize the errors we have. While Python supports type hints nowadays, Go makes it much more easy to work with and allows us to be confident in the software we ship.
Take look at our code in our github
Ever since the introduction of the PWA, I felt forced to learn JS, React, and Angular. I encountered WASM, which compiles Go/Rust to JS. I decided to give go a shot and made a simple weather PWA that tells the weather of various Japanese cities. It was 40x faster than Transcrypt and 0.9x faster than regular JS. Go is even simpler than Python when coming to tools like list comprehension and Pandas.
Coming from a C/C++ background, I picked up PHP 20 years ago. Today, the language is still in constant evolution while still having a stable base. It powers all of my backend project. It is fast to prototype and get started, and is supported almost everywhere.
Python and Node.js do not provide anything that PHP cannot already offer, so there is no point for me to switch to those language. Mature framework like Laravel provides real ease and speed of development to kick-start any new web project, be it a simple API or a robust ERP running on server-less architecture. There are libraries available for machine learning, crypto, web3 and pretty much anything you can think of.
I wanted to develop a student app that possibly could be used by many teams (students from other schools)
I chose Ionic, because:
single codebase: previously, we used React Native for Android and Angular for web/PWA, which was troublesome
portability: runs on PWA (which is important, because iOS license is too expensive for school app), web, Android iOS (+ others, if needed)
full use of web technologies: Next.js, Tailwind, React in this example (in oppose to Flutter/Java/Kotlin)
stability and maintainability: low-entry level due to basic web technologies without new syntax (in oppose to React Native and Flutter), web is really stable and won't lose support (which doesn't have to be true with Flutter/Dart)
We chose Rust for our web API because the Warp crate makes it easy to compose high-performance and asynchronous APIs. Rust allows us to achieve high development velocity because it provides zero-cost abstractions and enforces strict type and memory-safety checks with high quality and actionable error messages.
Pros of Java
- Great libraries595
- Widely used444
- Excellent tooling400
- Huge amount of documentation available390
- Large pool of developers available333
- Open source205
- Excellent performance201
- Great development155
- Vast array of 3rd party libraries149
- Used for android148
- Compiled Language60
- Used for Web51
- Managed memory46
- High Performance45
- Native threads44
- Statically typed43
- Easy to read35
- Great Community33
- Reliable platform29
- Sturdy garbage collection24
- JVM compatibility24
- Cross Platform Enterprise Integration22
- Universal platform20
- Good amount of APIs20
- Great Support18
- Great ecosystem14
- Lots of boilerplate11
- Backward compatible11
- Excellent SDK - JDK9
- Static typing7
- It's Java7
- Better than Ruby6
- Mature language thus stable systems6
- Long term language6
- Used for Android development5
- Vast Collections Library5
- Most developers favorite4
- Old tech4
- Stable platform, which many new languages depend on3
- Best martial for design3
- Great Structure3
- Type Safe2
- Faster than python2
Pros of Python
- Great libraries1.2K
- Readable code951
- Beautiful code837
- Rapid development781
- Large community684
- Open source428
- Great community279
- Object oriented270
- Dynamic typing215
- Great standard library76
- Very fast57
- Functional programming52
- Easy to learn45
- Scientific computing44
- Great documentation34
- Matlab alternative27
- Easy to read26
- Simple is better than complex22
- It's the way I think19
- Very programmer and non-programmer friendly16
- Powerfull language15
- Machine learning support15
- Fast and simple14
- Explicit is better than implicit10
- Clear and easy and powerfull9
- Unlimited power9
- Ease of development9
- Import antigravity8
- It's lean and fun to code7
- Print "life is short, use python"7
- Great for tooling6
- Fast coding and good for competitions6
- There should be one-- and preferably only one --obvious6
- Although practicality beats purity6
- Python has great libraries for data processing6
- Flat is better than nested6
- High Documented language6
- I love snakes6
- Now is better than never5
- Readability counts5
- Rapid Prototyping5
- Complex is better than complicated4
- Web scraping4
- CG industry needs4
- Great for analytics4
- Socially engaged community4
- Lists, tuples, dictionaries4
- Multiple Inheritence4
- Beautiful is better than ugly4
- Simple and easy to learn3
- Easy to learn and use3
- Many types of collections3
- No cruft3
- List comprehensions3
- Pip install everything3
- Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules3
- If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad id3
- If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a g3
- Easy to setup and run smooth3
- Import this3
- Flexible and easy2
- It is Very easy , simple and will you be love programmi2
- Batteries included2
- Can understand easily who are new to programming2
- Powerful language for AI2
- Should START with this but not STICK with This2
- Because of Netflix2
- Only one way to do it2
- Better outcome2
- Good for hacking2
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Cons of Java
- Nightmare to Write16
- Overcomplexity is praised in community culture16
- Boiler plate code12
- Classpath hell prior to Java 98
- No REPL6
- No property4
- Code are too long3
- Non-intuitive generic implementation2
- There is not optional parameter2
- Floating-point errors2
- Java's too statically, stronglly, and strictly typed1
- Returning Wildcard Types1
- Terrbible compared to Python/Batch Perormence1
Cons of Python
- Still divided between python 2 and python 351
- Performance impact28
- Poor syntax for anonymous functions26
- Package management is a mess19
- Too imperative-oriented14
- Hard to understand12
- Dynamic typing12
- Very slow11
- Not everything is expression8
- Indentations matter a lot7
- Explicit self parameter in methods7
- Incredibly slow7
- Requires C functions for dynamic modules6
- Poor DSL capabilities6
- No anonymous functions6
- Official documentation is unclear.5
- The "lisp style" whitespaces5
- Fake object-oriented programming5
- Hard to obfuscate5
- Circular import4
- The benevolent-dictator-for-life quit4
- Lack of Syntax Sugar leads to "the pyramid of doom"4
- Not suitable for autocomplete4
- Meta classes2
- Training wheels (forced indentation)1
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